Function of the heart valves was discussed in Chapter 9, where it was pointed out that closing of the valves causes audible sounds. Ordinarily, no audible sounds occur when the valves open. In this chapter, we first discuss the factors that cause the sounds in the heart under normal and abnormal conditions. Then we discuss what happens in the overall circulatory system when valvular or congenital heart defects are present.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.