Onset of Hormone Secretion After a Stimulus, and Duration of Action of Different Hormones. Some hormones, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine, are secreted within seconds after the gland is stimulated, and they may develop full action within another few seconds to minutes; the actions of other hormones, such as thyroxine or growth hormone, may require months for full effect. Thus, each of the different hormones has its own characteristic onset and duration of action—each tailored to perform its specific control function.
Concentrations of Hormones in the Circulating Blood, and Hormonal Secretion Rates. The concentrations of hormones required to control most metabolic and endocrine functions are incredibly small. Their concentrations in the blood range from as little as 1 picogram (which is one millionth of one millionth of a gram) in each milliliter of blood up to at most a few micrograms (a few
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.