Luminal Cl-concentration f
Luminal urea concentration
Passive urea reabsorption
Mechanisms by which water, chloride, and urea reabsorption are coupled with sodium reabsorption.
Cellular ultrastructure and primary transport characteristics of the proximal tubule. The proximal tubules reabsorb about 65 per cent of the filtered sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and potassium and essentially all the filtered glucose and amino acids. The proximal tubules also secrete organic acids, bases, and hydrogen ions into the tubular lumen.
Chloride ions can also be reabsorbed by secondary active transport. The most important of the secondary active transport processes for chloride reabsorption involves co-transport of chloride with sodium across the luminal membrane.
Urea is also passively reabsorbed from the tubule, but to a much lesser extent than chloride ions. As water is reabsorbed from the tubules (by osmosis coupled to sodium reabsorption), urea concentration in the tubular lumen increases (see Figure 27-5). This creates a concentration gradient favoring the reabsorption of urea. However, urea does not permeate the tubule as readily as water. In some parts of the nephron, especially the inner medullary collecting duct, passive urea reabsorption is facilitated by specific urea transporters. Yet only about one half of the urea that is filtered by the glomerular capillaries is reabsorbed from the tubules. The remainder of the urea passes into the urine, allowing the kidneys to excrete large amounts of this waste product of metabolism.
Another waste product of metabolism, creatinine, is an even larger molecule than urea and is essentially impermeant to the tubular membrane. Therefore, almost none of the creatinine that is filtered is reabsorbed, so that virtually all the creatinine filtered by the glomerulus is excreted in the urine.
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