Parturition means birth of the baby. Toward the end of pregnancy, the uterus becomes progressively more excitable, until finally it develops such strong rhythmical contractions that the baby is expelled. The exact cause of the increased activity of the uterus is not known, but at least two major categories of effects lead up to the intense contractions responsible for parturition: (1) progressive hormonal changes that cause increased excitability of the uterine musculature, and (2) progressive mechanical changes.
Hormonal Factors That Increase Uterine Contractility
Increased Ratio of Estrogens to Progesterone. Progesterone inhibits uterine contractility during pregnancy, thereby helping to prevent expulsion of the fetus. conversely, estrogens have a definite tendency to increase the degree of uterine contractility, partly because estrogens increase the number of gap junctions between the adjacent uterine smooth muscle cells, but also because of other poorly understood effects. Both progesterone and estrogen are secreted in progressively greater quantities throughout most of pregnancy, but from the seventh month onward, estrogen secretion continues to increase while progesterone secretion remains constant or perhaps even decreases slightly. Therefore, it has been postulated that the estrogen-to-progesterone ratio increases sufficiently toward the end of pregnancy to be at least partly responsible for the increased contractility of the uterus.
Effect of Oxytocin on the Uterus. oxytocin is a hormone secreted by the neurohypophysis that specifically causes uterine contraction (see Chapter 75). There are four reasons to believe that oxytocin might be important in increasing the contractility of the uterus near term: (1) The uterine muscle increases its oxytocin receptors and, therefore, increases its responsiveness to a given dose of oxytocin during the latter few months of pregnancy. (2) The rate of oxytocin secretion by the neurohypophysis is considerably increased at the time of labor. (3) Although hypophysectomized animals can still deliver their young at term, labor is prolonged. (4) Experiments in animals indicate that irritation or stretching of the uterine cervix, as occurs during labor, can cause a neurogenic reflex through the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus that causes the posterior pituitary gland (the neurohypophysis) to increase its secretion of oxytocin.
Effect of Fetal Hormones on the Uterus. The fetus's pituitary gland secretes increasing quantities of oxytocin, which might play a role in exciting the uterus. Also, the fetus's adrenal glands secrete large quantities of cortisol, another possible uterine stimulant. In addition, the fetal membranes release prostaglandins in high concentration at the time of labor. These, too, can increase the intensity of uterine contractions.
Mechanical Factors That Increase Uterine Contractility
Stretch of the Uterine Musculature. Simply stretching smooth muscle organs usually increases their contractility. Further, intermittent stretch, as occurs repeatedly in the uterus because of fetal movements, can also elicit smooth muscle contraction. Note especially that twins are born, on average, 19 days earlier than a single child, which emphasizes the importance of mechanical stretch in eliciting uterine contractions.
Stretch or Irritation of the Cervix. There is reason to believe that stretching or irritating the uterine cervix is particularly important in eliciting uterine contractions. For instance, the obstetrician frequently induces labor by rupturing the membranes so that the head of the baby stretches the cervix more forcefully than usual or irritates it in other ways.
The mechanism by which cervical irritation excites the body of the uterus is not known. It has been suggested that stretching or irritation of nerves in the cervix initiates reflexes to the body of the uterus, but the effect could also result simply from myogenic transmission of signals from the cervix to the body of the uterus.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.