11,760

Next, we calculate the total milliosmoles added to the extracellular fluid in 2 liters of 3.0 per cent sodium chloride. A 3.0 per cent solution means that there are 3.0 g/100 ml, or 30 grams of sodium chloride per liter. Because the molecular weight of sodium chloride is about 58.5 g/mol, this means that there is about 0.513 mole of sodium chloride per liter of solution. For 2 liters of solution, this would be 1.026 mole of sodium chloride. Because 1 mole of sodium chloride is about equal to 2 osmoles (sodium chloride has two osmoti-cally active particles per mole), the net effect of adding 2 liters of this solution is to add 2051 milliosmoles of sodium chloride to the extracellular fluid.

In Step 2, we calculate the instantaneous effect of adding 2051 milliosmoles of sodium chloride to the extracellular fluid along with 2 liters of volume. There would be no change in the intracellular fluid concentration or volume, and there would be no osmotic equilibrium. In the extracellular fluid, however, there would be an additional 2051 milliosmoles of total solute, yielding a total of 5791 milliosmoles. Because the extracellular compartment now has 16 liters of volume, the concentration can be calculated by dividing 5791 milliosmoles by 16 liters to yield a concentration of 373 mOsm/L. Thus, the following values would occur instantly after adding the solution.

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