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CHAPTER 40 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Blood and Tissue Fluids 502 Transport of Oxygen from the Lungs to the Body Tissues 502

Diffusion of Oxygen from the Alveoli to the

Pulmonary Capillary Blood 502

Transport of Oxygen in the Arterial Blood 503

Diffusion of Oxygen from the Peripheral

Capillaries into the Tissue Fluid 503

Diffusion of Oxygen from the Peripheral

Capillaries to the Tissue Cells 504

Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide from the Peripheral Tissue Cells into the Capillaries and from the Pulmonary Capillaries into the Alveoli 504

Role of Hemoglobin in Oxygen Transport 505

Reversible Combination of Oxygen with

Hemoglobin 505

Effect of Hemoglobin to "Buffer" the

Tissue Po2 507

Factors That Shift the Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve—Their Importance for Oxygen Transport 507

Metabolic Use of Oxygen by the Cells 508

Transport of Oxygen in the Dissolved State 509 Combination of Hemoglobin with Carbon Monoxide—Displacement of Oxygen 509

Transport of Carbon Dioxide in the Blood 510 Chemical Forms in Which Carbon Dioxide

Is Transported 510

Carbon Dioxide Dissociation Curve 511

When Oxygen Binds with Hemoglobin, Carbon Dioxide Is Released (the Haldane Effect) to Increase CO2 Transport 511

Change in Blood Acidity During Carbon Dioxide Transport 512

Respiratory Exchange Ratio 512

CHAPTER 41 Regulation of Respiration 514

Respiratory Center 514

Dorsal Respiratory Group of Neurons—Its Control of Inspiration and of Respiratory Rhythm 514

A Pneumotaxic Center Limits the Duration of Inspiration and Increases the Respiratory Rate 514

Ventral Respiratory Group of Neurons— Functions in Both Inspiration and Expiration 515

Lung Inflation Signals Limit Inspiration—

The Hering-Breuer Inflation Reflex 515

Control of Overall Respiratory Center Activity 516

Chemical Control of Respiration 516

Direct Chemical Control of Respiratory Center Activity by Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Ions 516

Peripheral Chemoreceptor System for Control of Respiratory Activity—Role of Oxygen in Respiratory Control 518

Effect of Low Arterial Po2 to Stimulate Alveolar Ventilation When Arterial Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Ion Concentrations Remain Normal 519

Chronic Breathing of Low Oxygen Stimulates Respiration Even More—The Phenomenon of "Acclimatization" Composite Effects of Pco2, pH, and Po2 on Alveolar Ventilation Regulation of Respiration During Exercise

Other Factors That Affect Respiration

Sleep Apnea

CHAPTER 42 Respiratory Insufficiency— Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Oxygen Therapy

Useful Methods for Studying Respiratory

Abnormalities Study of Blood Gases and Blood pH Measurement of Maximum Expiratory Flow Forced Expiratory Vital Capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume Physiologic Peculiarities of Specific Pulmonary Abnormalities Chronic Pulmonary Emphysema Pneumonia Atelectasis Asthma Tuberculosis Hypoxia and Oxygen Therapy Oxygen Therapy in Different Types of

Hypoxia Cyanosis Hypercapnia

Dyspnea Artificial Respiration

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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