rate of carbon monoxide uptake per minute
diffusing capacity of the lungs for oxygen
diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon
Pb atmospheric pressure
Palv alveolar pressure
Ppl pleural pressure
PO2 partial pressure of oxygen
PCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide
PN2 partial pressure of nitrogen
PaO2 partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood
PaCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood
PAO2 partial pressure of oxygen in alveolar gas
PACO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide in alveolar gas
PAH2O partial pressure of water in alveolar gas
R respiratory exchange ratio
Q cardiac output
CaO2 concentration of oxygen in arterial blood
Cv02 concentration of oxygen in mixed venous blood
SaO2 percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood where FRC is functional residual capacity, CiHe is initial concentration of helium in the spirometer, CfHe is final concentration of helium in the spirometer, and ViSpir is initial volume of the spirometer.
Once the FRC has been determined, the residual volume (RV) can be determined by subtracting expiratory reserve volume (ERV), as measured by normal spirometry, from the FRC. Also, the total lung capacity (TLC) can be determined by adding the inspiratory capacity (IC) to the FRC. That is,
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.