Nucleus -Synaptic body
Schematic drawing of the functional parts of the rods and cones.
Membranous structures of the outer segments of a rod (left) and a cone (right). (Courtesy Dr. Richard Young.)
lighting of the retina rather than the normal contrast between dark and light spots required for formation of precise images.
The importance of melanin in the pigment layer is well illustrated by its absence in albinos, people who are hereditarily lacking in melanin pigment in all parts of their bodies. When an albino enters a bright room, light that impinges on the retina is reflected in all directions inside the eyeball by the unpigmented surfaces of the retina and by the underlying sclera, so that a single discrete spot of light that would normally excite only a few rods or cones is reflected everywhere and excites many receptors. Therefore, the visual acuity of albinos, even with the best optical correction, is seldom better than 20/100 to 20/200 rather than the normal 20/20 values.
The pigment layer also stores large quantities of vitamin A. This vitamin A is exchanged back and forth through the cell membranes of the outer segments of the rods and cones, which themselves are embedded in the pigment. We show later that vitamin A is an important precursor of the photosensitive chemicals of the rods and cones.
Blood Supply of the Retina—The Central Retinal Artery and the
Choroid. The nutrient blood supply for the internal layers of the retina is derived from the central retinal artery, which enters the eyeball through the center of the optic nerve and then divides to supply the entire inside retinal surface. Thus, the inner layers of the retina have their own blood supply independent of the other structures of the eye.
However, the outermost layer of the retina is adherent to the choroid, which is also a highly vascular tissue lying between the retina and the sclera. The outer layers of the retina, especially the outer segments of the rods and cones, depend mainly on diffusion from the choroid blood vessels for their nutrition, especially for their oxygen.
Retinal Detachment. The neural retina occasionally detaches from the pigment epithelium .In some instances, the cause of such detachment is injury to the eyeball that allows fluid or blood to collect between the neural retina and the pigment epithelium. Detachment is occasionally caused by contracture of fine collagenous fibrils in the vitreous humor, which pull areas of the retina toward the interior of the globe.
Partly because of diffusion across the detachment gap and partly because of the independent blood supply to the neural retina through the retinal artery, the detached retina can resist degeneration for days and can become functional again if it is surgically replaced in its normal relation with the pigment epithelium. If it is not replaced soon, however, the retina will be destroyed and will be unable to function even after surgical repair.
horizontal and bipolar cells, that represent the next stages in the vision chain.
Pigment Layer of the Retina. The black pigment melanin in the pigment layer prevents light reflection throughout the globe of the eyeball; this is extremely important for clear vision. This pigment performs the same function in the eye as the black coloring inside the bellows of a camera. Without it, light rays would be reflected in all directions within the eyeball and would cause diffuse
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