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The pH of urine can range from 4.5 to 8.0, depending on the acid-base status of the extracellular fluid. As discussed later, the kidneys play a major role in correcting abnormalities of extracellular fluid H+ concentration by excreting acids or bases at variable rates.

An extreme example of an acidic body fluid is the HCl secreted into the stomach by the oxyntic (parietal) cells of the stomach mucosa, as discussed in Chapter 64. The H+ concentration in these cells is about 4 million times greater than the hydrogen concentration in blood, with a pH of 0.8.

In the remainder of this chapter, we discuss the regulation of extracellular fluid H+ concentration.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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