CHAPTER 5 Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials

Basic Physics of Membrane Potentials

Membrane Potentials Caused by Diffusion

Measuring the Membrane Potential Resting Membrane Potential of Nerves Origin of the Normal Resting Membrane Potential Nerve Action Potential Voltage-Gated Sodium and Potassium Channels

Summary of the Events That Cause the Action Potential Roles of Other Ions During the Action Potential

Initiation of the Action Potential Propagation of the Action Potential Re-establishing Sodium and Potassium Ionic Gradients After Action Potentials Are Completed—Importance of Energy Metabolism Plateau in Some Action Potentials Rhythmicity of Some Excitable Tissues—

Repetitive Discharge Special Characteristics of Signal

Transmission in Nerve Trunks Excitation—The Process of Eliciting the Action Potential "Refractory Period" After an Action Potential

Recording Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials

Inhibition of Excitability—"Stabilizers" and Local Anesthetics

CHAPTER 6 Contraction of Skeletal Muscle Physiologic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle

Skeletal Muscle Fiber General Mechanism of Muscle

Contraction Molecular Mechanism of Muscle Contraction

Molecular Characteristics of the

Contractile Filaments Effect of Amount of Actin and Myosin Filament Overlap on Tension Developed by the Contracting Muscle Relation of Velocity of Contraction to Load

Energetics of Muscle Contraction Work Output During Muscle Contraction Sources of Energy for Muscle Contraction Characteristics of Whole Muscle Contraction

Mechanics of Skeletal Muscle Contraction Remodeling of Muscle to Match Function Rigor Mortis

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Essentials of Human Physiology

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