Figure 39-1

Diffusion of oxygen from one end of a chamber (A) to the other (B). The difference between the lengths of the arrows represents net diffusion.

In respiratory physiology, one deals with mixtures of gases, mainly of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. The rate of diffusion of each of these gases is directly proportional to the pressure caused by that gas alone, which is called the partial pressure of that gas. The concept of partial pressure can be explained as follows.

Consider air, which has an approximate composition of 79 per cent nitrogen and 21 per cent oxygen. The total pressure of this mixture at sea level averages 760 mm Hg. It is clear from the preceding description of the molecular basis of pressure that each gas contributes to the total pressure in direct proportion to its concentration. Therefore, 79 per cent of the 760 mm Hg is caused by nitrogen (600 mm Hg) and 21 per cent by oxygen (160mmHg). Thus, the "partial pressure" of nitrogen in the mixture is 600 mm Hg, and the "partial pressure" of oxygen is 160 mm Hg; the total pressure is 760 mm Hg, the sum of the individual partial pressures. The partial pressures of individual gases in a mixture are designated by the symbols Po2, Pco2, Pn2, Ph2o, PHe, and so forth.

Pressures of Gases Dissolved in Water and Tissues

Gases dissolved in water or in body tissues also exert pressure, because the dissolved gas molecules are moving randomly and have kinetic energy. Further, when the gas dissolved in fluid encounters a surface, such as the membrane of a cell, it exerts its own partial pressure in the same way that a gas in the gas phase does. The partial pressures of the separate dissolved gases are designated the same as the partial pressures in the gas state, that is, Po2, Pco2, Pn2, PHe, and so forth.

Factors That Determine the Partial Pressure of a Gas Dissolved in a Fluid. The partial pressure of a gas in a solution is determined not only by its concentration but also by the solubility coefficient of the gas. That is, some types of molecules, especially carbon dioxide, are physically or chemically attracted to water molecules, whereas others are repelled. When molecules are attracted, far more of them can be dissolved without building up excess partial pressure within the solution. Conversely, in the case of those that are repelled, high partial pressure will develop with fewer dissolved molecules. These relations are expressed by the following formula, which is Henry's law:

When partial pressure is expressed in atmospheres (1 atmosphere pressure equals 760 mm Hg) and concentration is expressed in volume of gas dissolved in each volume of water, the solubility coefficients for important respiratory gases at body temperature are the following:


Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Nitrogen Helium

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