Liver Secretion of Cholesterol and Gallstone Formation

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Bile salts are formed in the hepatic cells from cholesterol in the blood plasma. In the process of secreting the bile salts, about 1 to 2 grams of cholesterol are removed from the blood plasma and secreted into the bile each day.

Cholesterol is almost completely insoluble in pure water, but the bile salts and lecithin in bile combine physically with the cholesterol to form ultramicroscopic micelles in the form of a colloidal solution, as explained in more detail in Chapter 65. When the bile becomes concentrated in the gallbladder, the bile salts and lecithin become concentrated along with the cholesterol, which keeps the cholesterol in solution.

Under abnormal conditions, the cholesterol may precipitate in the gallbladder, resulting in the formation of cholesterol gallstones, as shown in Figure 64-12. The amount of cholesterol in the bile is determined partly by the quantity of fat that the person eats, because liver cells synthesize cholesterol as one of the products of fat metabolism in the body. For this reason, people on a high-fat diet over a period of years are prone to the development of gallstones.

Inflammation of the gallbladder epithelium, often resulting from low-grade chronic infection, may also change the absorptive characteristics of the gallbladder mucosa, sometimes allowing excessive absorption of water and bile salts but leaving behind the cholesterol

Causes of gallstones:

1. Too much absorption of water from bile

2. Too much absorption of bile acids from bile

3. Too much cholesterol in bile

4. Inflammation of epithelium

Bicipital Muscle Arm

Figure 64-13

Duodenum

Causes of gallstones:

1. Too much absorption of water from bile

2. Too much absorption of bile acids from bile

3. Too much cholesterol in bile

4. Inflammation of epithelium

Cilia Respiratory Tract

Figure 64-13

A crypt of Lieberkuhn, found in all parts of the small intestine between the villi, which secretes almost pure extracellular fluid.

Duodenum

Formation of gallstones.

Formation of gallstones.

area of the gastrointestinal tract to be the site of peptic ulcers in about 50 per cent of ulcer patients.

in the bladder in progressively greater concentrations. Then the cholesterol begins to precipitate, first forming many small crystals of cholesterol on the surface of the inflamed mucosa, but then progressing to large gallstones.

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Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

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