+ H+ + Substrate

This reaction will not occur without intermediation of the specific dehydrogenase or without the availability of NAD+ to act as a hydrogen carrier. Both the free hydrogen ion and the hydrogen bound with NAD+ subsequently enter into multiple oxidative chemical reactions that form tremendous quantities of ATP, as discussed later.

The remaining four hydrogen atoms released during the breakdown of glucose—the four released during the citric acid cycle between the succinic and fumaric acid stages—combine with a specific dehydrogenase but are not subsequently released to NAD+. Instead, they pass directly from the dehydrogenase into the oxidative process.

Function of Decarboxylases in Causing Release of Carbon Dioxide.

Referring again to the chemical reactions of the citric acid cycle, as well as to those for the formation of

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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