Physiologic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle

Figure 9-2 shows a typical histological picture of cardiac muscle, demonstrating cardiac muscle fibers arranged in a latticework, with the fibers dividing, recombining, and then spreading again. One also notes immediately from this figure that cardiac muscle is striated in the same manner as in typical skeletal muscle. Further, cardiac muscle has typical myofibrils that contain actin and myosin filaments almost identical to those found in skeletal muscle; these filaments lie side by side and slide along one another during contraction in the same manner as occurs in skeletal muscle (see Chapter 6). But in other ways, cardiac muscle is quite different from skeletal muscle, as we shall see.

Cardiac Muscle as a Syncytium. The dark areas crossing the cardiac muscle fibers in Figure 9-2 are called intercalated discs; they are actually cell membranes that separate individual cardiac muscle cells from one another. That is, cardiac muscle fibers are made up of many individual cells connected in series and in parallel with one another.

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Structure of the heart, and course of blood flow through the heart chambers and heart valves.

Guyton Cardiac Pulses
Figure 9-3

Structure of the heart, and course of blood flow through the heart chambers and heart valves.

Rhythmical action potentials (In millivolts) from a Purkinje fiber and from a ventricular muscle fiber, recorded by means of microelectrodes.

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Figure 9-2

"Syncytial," interconnecting nature of cardiac muscle fibers.

The heart actually is composed of two syncytiums: the atrial syncytium that constitutes the walls of the two atria, and the ventricular syncytium that constitutes the walls of the two ventricles. The atria are separated from the ventricles by fibrous tissue that surrounds the atrioventricular (A-V) valvular openings between the atria and ventricles. Normally, potentials are not conducted from the atrial syncytium into the ventricular syncytium directly through this fibrous tissue. Instead, they are conducted only by way of a specialized conductive system called the A-V bundle, a bundle of conductive fibers several millimeters in diameter that is discussed in detail in Chapter 10.

This division of the muscle of the heart into two functional syncytiums allows the atria to contract a short time ahead of ventricular contraction, which is important for effectiveness of heart pumping.

At each intercalated disc the cell membranes fuse with one another in such a way that they form permeable "communicating" junctions (gap junctions) that allow almost totally free diffusion of ions. Therefore, from a functional point of view, ions move with ease in the intracellular fluid along the longitudinal axes of the cardiac muscle fibers, so that action potentials travel easily from one cardiac muscle cell to the next, past the intercalated discs. Thus, cardiac muscle is a syncytium of many heart muscle cells in which the cardiac cells are so interconnected that when one of these cells becomes excited, the action potential spreads to all of them, spreading from cell to cell throughout the latticework interconnections.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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  • Asphodel
    What is the significance of latticework arrangement of cardiac muscle cell.?
    3 years ago

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