About 90 to 95 per cent of all people who have hypertension are said to have "primary hypertension," also widely known as "essential hypertension" by many clinicians. These terms mean simply that the hypertension is of unknown origin, in contrast to those forms of hypertension that are secondary to known causes, such as renal artery stenosis. In some patients with primary hypertension, there is a strong hereditary tendency, the same as occurs in animal strains of genetic hypertension discussed above.
In most patients, excess weight gain and sedentary lifestyle appear to play a major role in causing hypertension. The majority of patients with hypertension are overweight, and studies of different populations suggest that excess weight gain and obesity may account for as much as 65 to 70 percent of the risk for developing primary hypertension. Clinical studies have clearly shown the value of weight loss for reducing blood pressure in most patients with hypertension. In fact, new clinical guidelines for treating hypertension recommend increased physical activity and weight loss as a first step in treating most patients with hypertension.
Some of the characteristics of primary hypertension caused by excess weight gain and obesity include:
1. Cardiac output is increased due, in part, to the additional blood flow required for the extra adipose tissue. However, blood flow in the heart, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and skeletal muscle also increases with weight gain due to increased metabolic rate and growth of the organs and tissues in response to their increased metabolic demands. As the hypertension is sustained for many months and years, total peripheral vascular resistance may be increased.
2. Sympathetic nerve activity, especially in the kidneys, is increased in overweight patients. The causes of increased sympathetic activity in obesity are not fully understood, but recent studies suggest that hormones, such as leptin, released from fat cells may directly stimulate multiple regions of the hypothalamus, which, in turn, have an excitatory influence on the vasomotor centers of the brain medulla.
3. Angiotensin II and aldosterone levels are increased two- to threefold in many obese patients. This may be caused partly by increased sympathetic nerve stimulation, which increases renin release by the kidneys and therefore formation of angiotensin II, which, in turn, stimulates the adrenal gland to secrete aldosterone.
4. The renal-pressure natriuresis mechanism is impaired, and the kidneys will not excrete adequate amounts of salt and water unless the arterial pressure is high or unless kidney function is somehow improved. In other words, if the mean arterial pressure in the essential hypertensive person is 150 mm Hg, acute reduction of the mean arterial pressure artificially to the normal value of
100 mm Hg (but without otherwise altering renal function except for the decreased pressure) will cause almost total anuria, and the person will retain salt and water until the pressure rises back to the elevated value of 150 mm Hg. Chronic reductions in arterial pressure with effective antihypertensive therapies, however, usually do not cause marked salt and water retention by the kidneys because these therapies also improve renal-pressure natriuresis, as discussed below.
Experimental studies in obese animals and obese patients suggest that impaired renal-pressure natri-uresis in obesity hypertension is caused mainly by increased renal tubular reabsorption of salt and water due to increased sympathetic nerve activity and increased levels of angiotensin II and aldosterone. However, if hypertension is not effectively treated, there may also be vascular damage in the kidneys that can reduce the glomerular filtration rate and increase the severity of the hypertension. Eventually uncontrolled hypertension associated with obesity can lead to severe vascular injury and complete loss of kidney function.
Graphical Analysis of Arterial Pressure Control in Essential Hypertension. Figure 19-14 is a graphical analysis of essential hypertension. The curves of this figure are called sodium-loading renal function curves because the arterial pressure in each instance is increased very slowly, over many days or weeks, by gradually
0 50 100 150
Arterial pressure (mm Hg)
0 50 100 150
Arterial pressure (mm Hg)
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