Figure 11-1

Normal electrocardiogram.

Figure 11-2C shows halfway repolarization of the same muscle fiber, with positivity returning to the outside of the fiber. At this point, the left electrode is in an area of positivity, and the right electrode is in an area of negativity. This is opposite to the polarity in Figure 11-2A Consequently, the recording, as shown to the right, becomes negative.

In Figure 11-2^, the muscle fiber has completely repolarized, and both electrodes are now in areas of positivity, so that no potential difference is recorded between them. Thus, in the recording to the right, the potential returns once more to zero. This completed negative wave is a repolarization wave because it results from spread of repolarization along the muscle fiber membrane.

Relation of the Monophasic Action Potential of Ventricular Muscle to the QRS and T Waves in the Standard Electrocardiogram. The monophasic action potential of ventricular muscle, discussed in Chapter 10, normally lasts between 0.25 and 0.35 second. The top part of Figure 11-3 shows a monophasic action potential recorded from a micro-electrode inserted to the inside of a single ventricular muscle fiber. The upsweep of this action potential is caused by depolarization, and the return of the potential to the baseline is caused by repolarization.

Note in the lower half of the figure a simultaneous recording of the electrocardiogram from this same ventricle, which shows the QRS waves appearing at

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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