Although it is possible to understand most general principles of cardiac failure using mainly qualitative logic, as we have done thus far in this chapter, one can grasp the importance of the different factors in cardiac failure with far greater depth by using more quantitative approaches. One such approach is the graphical method for analysis of cardiac output regulation introduced in Chapter 20. In the remaining sections of this chapter, we analyze several aspects of cardiac failure, using this graphical technique.
Graphical Analysis of Acute Heart Failure and Chronic Compensation
Figure 22-5 shows cardiac output and venous return curves for different states of the heart and peripheral
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