During rest, blood flow through skeletal muscle averages 3 to 4 ml/min/100 g of muscle. During extreme exercise in the well-conditioned athlete, this can increase 15- to 25-fold, rising to 50 to 80 ml/min/100 g of muscle.
Blood Flow During Muscle Contractions. Figure 21-1 shows a record of blood flow changes in a calf muscle of a human leg during strong rhythmical muscular exercise. Note that the flow increases and decreases with each muscle contraction. At the end of the contractions, the blood flow remains very high for a few seconds but then fades toward normal during the next few minutes.
The cause of the lower flow during the muscle contraction phase of exercise is compression of the blood vessels by the contracted muscle. During strong tetanic contraction, which causes sustained compression of the blood vessels, the blood flow can be almost stopped, but this also causes rapid weakening of the contraction.
Increased Blood Flow in Muscle Capillaries During Exercise. During rest, some muscle capillaries have little or no flowing blood. But during strenuous exercise, all the capillaries open. This opening of dormant capillaries diminishes the distance that oxygen and other nutrients must diffuse from the capillaries to the contracting muscle fibers and sometimes contributes a twofold to threefold increased capillary surface area through which oxygen and nutrients can diffuse from the blood.
Effects of muscle exercise on blood flow in the calf of a leg during strong rhythmical contraction. The blood flow was much less during contractions than between contractions. (Adapted from Barcroft and Dornhorst: J Physiol 109:402, 1949.)
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.