Bastian LA, Smith CM, Nanda K: Is this woman peri-menopausal? JAMA 289:895, 2003.
Beral V, Banks E, Reeves G: Evidence from randomised trials on the long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy. Lancet 360:942, 2002.
Compston JE: Sex steroids and bone. Physiol Rev 81:419, 2001.
Gruber CJ, Tschugguel W, Schneeberger C, Huber JC: Production and actions of estrogens. N Engl J Med 346:340, 2002.
Hamilton-Fairley D, Taylor A: Anovulation. BMJ 327:546, 2003.
Lorenzo J: A new hypothesis for how sex steroid hormones regulate bone mass. J Clin Invest 111:1641, 2003.
Manson JE, Martin KA: Postmenopausal hormone-replacement therapy. N Engl J Med 345:34, 2001.
Nadal A, Diaz M, Valverde MA: The estrogen trinity: membrane, cytosolic, and nuclear effects. News Physiol Sci 16:251, 2001.
Nelson HD: Commonly used types of postmenopausal estrogen for treatment of hot flashes: scientific review. JAMA 291:1610, 2004.
Nilsson S, Makela S, Treuter E, et al: Mechanisms of estrogen action. Physiol Rev 81:1535, 2001.
Niswender GD, Juengel JL, Silva PJ, et al: Mechanisms controlling the function and life span of the corpus luteum. Physiol Rev 80:1, 2000.
Petitti DB: Combination estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med 349:1443, 2003.
Pettersson K, Gustafsson JA: Role of estrogen receptor beta in estrogen action. Annu Rev Physiol 63:165, 2001.
Riggs BL: The mechanisms of estrogen regulation of bone resorption. J Clin Invest 106:1203, 2000.
Riggs BL, Hartmann LC: Selective estrogen-receptor modulators—mechanisms of action and application to clinical practice. N Engl J Med 348:618, 2003.
Smith S, Pfeifer SM, Collins JA: Diagnosis and management of female infertility. JAMA 290:1767, 2003.
Terasawa E, Fernandez DL: Neurobiological mechanisms of the onset of puberty in primates. Endocr Rev 22:111, 2001.
Toran-Allerand CD: A plethora of estrogen receptors in the brain: where will it end? Endocrinology 145:1069, 2004.
van der Eerden BC, Karperien M, Wit JM: Systemic and local regulation of the growth plate. Endocr Rev 24:782, 2003.
Vasudevan N, Ogawa S, Pfaff D: Estrogen and thyroid hormone receptor interactions: physiological flexibility by molecular specificity. Physiol Rev 82:923, 2002.
Was this article helpful?
Are Menopause Symptoms Playing Havoc With Your Health and Relationships? Are you tired of the mood swings, dryness, hair loss and wrinkles that come with the change of life? Do you want to do something about it but are wary of taking the estrogen or antidepressants usually prescribed for menopause symptoms?