Now, after discussing much of the known information about the interrelations of the different components of the female hormonal system, we can attempt to explain the feedback oscillation that controls the rhythm of the female sexual cycle. It seems to operate in approximately the following sequence of three events.

1. Postovulatory Secretion of the Ovarian Hormones, and Depression of the Pituitary Gonadotropins. The easiest part of the cycle to explain is the events that occur during the postovulatory phase—between ovulation and the beginning of menstruation. During this time, the corpus luteum secretes large quantities of both progesterone and estrogen, as well as the hormone inhibin. All these hormones together have a combined negative feedback effect on the anterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus, causing the suppression of both FSH and LH secretion and decreasing them to their lowest levels about 3 to 4 days before the onset of menstruation. These effects are shown in Figure 81-3.

2. Follicular Growth Phase. Two to 3 days before menstruation, the corpus luteum has regressed to almost total involution, and the secretion of estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin from the corpus luteum decreases to a low ebb. This releases the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary from the negative feedback effect of these hormones. Therefore, a day or so later, at about the time that menstruation begins, pituitary secretion of FSH begins to increase again, as much as twofold; then, several days after menstruation begins, LH secretion increases slightly as well. These hormones initiate new ovarian follicle growth and a progressive increase in the secretion of estrogen, reaching a peak estrogen secretion at about 12.5 to 13 days after the onset of the new female monthly sexual cycle.

During the first 11 to 12 days of this follicle growth, the rates of pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins FSH and LH decrease slightly because of the negative feedback effect, mainly of estrogen, on the anterior pituitary gland. Then there is a sudden, marked increase in the secretion of LH and, to a lesser extent, FSH. This is the preovulatory surge of LH and FSH, which is followed by ovulation.

3. Preovulatory Surge of LH and FSH Causes Ovulation. At about 11.5 to 12 days after the onset of the monthly cycle, the decline in secretion of FSH and LH comes to an abrupt halt. It is believed that the high level of estrogens at this time (or the beginning of progesterone secretion by the follicles) causes a positive feedback stimulatory effect on the anterior pituitary, as explained earlier, which leads to a terrific surge in the secretion of LH and, to a lesser extent, FSH. Whatever the cause of this preovulatory LH and FSH surge, the great excess of LH leads to both ovulation and subsequent development of and secretion by the corpus luteum. Thus, the hormonal system begins its new round of secretions until the next ovulation.

Anovulatory Cycles—Sexual Cycles at Puberty

If the preovulatory surge of LH is not of sufficient magnitude, ovulation will not occur, and the cycle is said to be "anovulatory." The phases of the sexual cycle continue, but they are altered in the following ways: First, lack of ovulation causes failure of development of the corpus luteum, so there is almost no secretion of progesterone during the latter portion of the cycle. Second, the cycle is shortened by several days, but the rhythm continues. Therefore, it is likely that progesterone is not required for maintenance of the cycle itself, although it can alter its rhythm.

The first few cycles after the onset of puberty are usually anovulatory, as are the cycles occurring several months to years before menopause, presumably because the LH surge is not potent enough at these times to cause ovulation.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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