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Effects of Om Meditation

If one wants to meditate using Om, and risk the injury described in the next section, then the typical procedure seems to be the following Lie down comfortably on a bed preferably at night before sleeping. The room should be quiet. Then, close the eyes and mentally repeat the sound Om, over and over, at whatever seems like a normal pace do not say the sound aloud. Avoid stray thoughts, and try not to feel the body. Although movement should be avoided, do move if it will correct any physical discomfort. During the meditation, the attention has to settle somewhere, and a good place to focus the attention is the center of the forehead. There is no guarantee that the use of Om will produce results. The results of Om meditation have a high threshold. A single sounding of Om is useless. Instead, it must be repeated many times. Many hours of using Om, spread over many days, may be necessary before there are any results. The following are some of the effects that may result from Om meditation...

Transcendental Meditation

Various types of meditation have been practiced for over 2,500 years. Many Eastern cultures have included forms of meditation as an important part of their religious and spiritual enrichment (e.g., Zen, yoga). More recently, the West has taken an interest in the practice of transcendental meditation (TM) as taught by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. It is promoted as a means to help increase energy, reduce stress, and have a positive effect on mental and physical health. The actual practice of TM involves sitting upright, with the eyes closed, and silently repeating a mantra whenever thoughts occur. The meditation is said to be effortless, enjoyable, and relaxing. The individual is instructed to meditate for 20 minutes in the morning before breakfast and 20 minutes in the evening.


Particularly important if you're anxious about your thyroid treatments, or you're thyrotoxic, meditation simply requires you to stop thinking (about your life, problems, and so on) and just be. Yogic breathing is a tool for meditation often used to get you to focus solely on your breath. Breathing deeply through one nostril and out through your mouth is the classic technique. To do this, people usually find a relaxing spot, or sit quietly and breathe deeply for a few minutes. But there is also active meditation that can include

Asian Disciplines and Therapies

The applied side of Asian psychologies focuses on disciplines and therapies designed to foster psychological and spiritual development and well-being. The best-known disciplines are meditation and yoga. Meditation refers to a family of techniques that train awareness and attention in order to bring mental processes under greater voluntary control. This control is used to reduce destructive mental qualities to cultivate beneficial qualities such as concentration, compassion, and insight and to enhance psychological and spiritual growth and well-being. Yogas are more inclusive disciplines that encompass meditation, ethics, lifestyle modification, body postures, breath control, and intellectual study. To give just two examples of Asian techniques and resultant skills which until recently Western psychologists considered impossible consider the cultivation of love and lucid dreaming. Several meditations are specifically designed to cultivate the encompassing, unconditional love known as...

But What Infra Action Is Le Penseur Performing

If Ryle has satisfactorily characterized thinking what one is doing, can what the motionless Penseur is doing be explained as a variant or derivative of it In particular, what is the infra X-ing in the Penseur case I have, Ryle confesses, said nothing about what Le Penseur is engaged in, that is, about the person who is engaged in the thinking of thoughts. He is surely so meditating, reflecting, pondering or thinking that the report he is thinking is not an unfinished adverbial report. . . . The notion of thinking what one is doing does not amount to any of the notions of for example meditating, reflecting, examining, deliberating, pondering or calculating. The telephone interrupts the typist's attentive and careful typing but it interrupts Le Penseur's attentive and careful thinking. 53 He confesses that we now seem to be stumped to nominate any . . . autonomous X-ing or X-ings such that Le Penseur must be X-ing more or less exploratively, tentatively, pertinaciously, pugnaciously,...

Conclusions and Future Considerations

The efforts and information described above are directed toward a single goal the complete understanding of the processes and events of DNA packaging in dsDNA phages. While much progress has been made, many questions remain. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in DNA packaging can be tackled like any other molecular mechanism by following the ''path to enlightenment (1), which requires the following (i) a complete list of components, (ii) the description of all intermediates, (iii) the kinetics of all reactions, and (iv) atomic structures of all components. Some of the gaps in this effort include those listed below.

Control Based Interventions

Dering, accepting, and letting go with serenity (i.e., without feelings of helplessness or resignation) of those aspects of their lives that are not under personal control, or of inappropriate active control efforts. Practical instructions in each mode are explained, as well as ways to integrate and achieve balance between the two positive modes.

Neuroimaging of States of Consciousness

The first study, with positron emission tomography (PET), of eight members of a yoga meditation group (Herzog et al., 1990-91) compared the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in the resting state and during meditation. The only statistically significant difference (p 0.05) was the ratio of frontal versus occipital metabolic rates of glucose, with the increase of activity in frontal areas and reduction in primary and secondary visual centers during meditation. There were no changes in interhemispheric activity. In studies with 15O-H2O PET (Lou et al., 1999), nine practitioners of Yoga Nidra meditation (during which meditator becomes a neutral observer, the mind withdraws from wishing to act, it is not associated with emotions, nor the power of will) were observed. Tape- recorded instructions were similar to autogenic training (describing the weight of parts of body) and guided imagery (to experience joy and happiness in one part, imagine a nice landscape, perceive oneself...

Obstacles to Observing Bions

Being partly composed of intelligent particles, it is possible for a man to be his own instrument to observe bions. However, because of the fragility of the physical body, and its overriding needs, most people cannot directly observe bions without some kind of assistance, such as by meditation.

Lucid Dream Projections

Regarding out-of-body experiences, many good accounts have been written in Europe and America. Many people have had isolated out-of-body experiences, and some of these experiences have been collected and published by researchers. However, there are also books written by individuals who have had many out-of-body experiences, without the aid of meditation, drugs, or other means. They are called projectionists, because they are self-aware while projected away from their bodies and they remember their experiences long enough to record them.

Solitonic Projections

A solitonic projection can happen to someone without a prior history of out-of-body experiences, but this seems to be very rare. More likely, a solitonic projection can happen to experienced lucid-dream projectionists, and to bion-body projectionists. The Om meditation method, described in chapter 5, has the potential to elicit a solitonic projection.

Practical Conclusions

It should be emphasized that, in practice, there is no sharp border between the relaxing states and the relaxation response only. During meditation, according to rules described by Benson (1975), the reduction of interoceptive stimuli reception may not occur and eventually the relaxing state or sleepiness may appear. Similarly, during relaxing exercises it is possible to counteract the tendency to fall asleep by switching attention from interoceptive experiences to monotonous stimuli (i.e., observing or counting breaths). This may lead to the relaxation response by cutting off the reception of stimuli from the external sources of stimulation. 2. Both the relaxing exercises and meditative techniques may cause some people to experience states of consciousness previously unknown to them, or states that they avoid in everyday life. Such experiences may be stressful. Moreover, there are data that relaxation may sometimes induce anxiety (Heide and Borkowec, 1983). For this reason it is...

Social activity and relationships

Young adulthood is a time of increased vulnerability to stress and social pressures and presents cancer survivors with major developmental challenges above and beyond those faced by other young people (Hobbie etal. 2000). For example, negotiating interpersonal relationships (including intimacy and forming families), as well as educational and employment decisions and achievements, often requires a focus, perhaps for the first time, on the medical, social, cognitive or psychological effects of cancer treatment. It is not uncommon for adolescents and young adults with cancer to experience changes in friendships and perhaps a sense of isolation from friends due to lengthy time away from home, school or work for treatments many friendships may fall by the wayside over time (Schultz Adams 2003). Adolescents and young adults with cancer may become isolated from friends who they feel may no longer be able to relate to their life situation. These young patients and survivors report that their...

A2 The Philosophical Background to the Schism of the 1840s

2 Technology, which was still indistinguishable from science per se, may have tilted the balance decisively in favour of 'mechanism' (Gregory 1977). Methodical, reductive, mechanistic science became generally perceived as the great benefactor as well as the great explainer. Later in the 19th century, Haeckel expressed the general opinion that science would solve all mankind's problems during the following two generations Enlightenment optimism in new nationalistic garb. Kant

A22 The Empiricist Tradition

Lockean empiricism became a major influence on the Philosophes of 18th-century France. In many respects it became the spirit of the Enlightenment, inspiring a new view of the Nature and of the human condition it underpinned political movements5 as well as academic inquiry. It also made the scope of 'science' very wide. For example, Descartes had held that while the human body was 'a machine', sensation and thought betokened the soul6 but Locke had maintained that sensation, thought and emotions were of the body. His followers in the 18th and early 19th centuries were prepared to treat sensation and emotion as matters of physiology (Berlin 1956). The 'soul' was marginalised.

Physiological Effects

During the beginning of meditation, alpha amplitude increases, and alpha frequency may slow by 1-3 Hz. 2. During the middle of the meditation, trains of theta rhythms occur, often intermixed with alpha. 3. During deep meditation, bursts of high-frequency beta of 20-40 Hz can occur. 4. At the end of meditation, alpha may continue even while the eyes are open. It is thought that EEG readings may be useful in monitoring the individual's response to meditation. Those with atypical EEG readings may need to obtain additional TM instruction or may not be able to use it effectively. Research has attempted to compare TM to napping, eyes-closed rest, and contemplation meditation in terms of physiological and cognitive ability. Wallace (1999) noted that regular practitioners of TM (as compared to those who close their eyes and rest) had significantly more changes in the autonomic and central nervous system associated with EEG alpha coherence patterns. Orme-Johnson (2001) compared TM, napping,...

Barriers to Transitioning Survivors to Young Adult Followup

Many of the barriers identified by Schidlow and Fiel 19 that adolescents with chronic diseases face in making the transition into adult healthcare systems are also applicable to survivors. The patient may exhibit dependent behavior and immaturity. The family may demonstrate an excessive need for control, emotional dependency or a lack of trust in the new healthcare providers. As Schidlow and Fiel emphasize, the pediatric and adult healthcare providers also have obstacles to overcome for a healthy transition. The pediatric provider often has strong emotional bonds with the patient and the family and may feel distress in letting go. Some pediatric caregivers may believe that they have the necessary skills for

Psychology in a Postmodern Condition

Human beings were in the center of the Age of Enlightenment. The modern science of psychology was founded on a conception of individual subjects, with internal souls and later internal psychic apparatuses. In a postmodern age, man is decentered, as the individual subject is dissolved into linguistic structures and ensembles of relations. The question arises as to the status of psychology as a science of the individual when the individual has been dethroned from the center of the world. There have been few discussions among psychologists on the consequences of a postmodern culture. Three possible implications of a postmodern approach to psychology are outlined here.

Conclusions from Researchers Investigating Altered States of Consciousness Mechanisms

Researchers involved in studies on consciousness focused their interest on some processes that may lead to altered states of consciousness. Many of them hoped that investigations of meditation, hypnosis, and sensory deprivation would have a crucial meaning for psychology. The current knowledge on them is noteworthy. 1.2.1. Meditation Meditation refers to a family of techniques which have in common a conscious attempt to focus attention in a non-analytical way, and an attempt not to dwell on discursive, rumination thought (Shapiro, 1980, p. 14). Undoubtedly, meditation is one of the most investigated conditions leading to ASC. From the abundant literature, the works of Wallace et al. (1971) are particularly important. Their physiological research indicated that from meditation specific changes arise these were conceptualized as the relaxation response, that is, a specific hypometabolic state of psychophysical regeneration understood as the trophotropic reaction (Benson, 1975). However,...

Historical Background of ASC Investigations

Altered states of consciousness became very popular in Western countries in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of an increase of common interest in Eastern culture, which pays a lot of attention to internal experiences. The most enthusiastic researchers of consciousness announced a turning point in psychology that would enable the utilization of human potentials, which had not been available in Western culture before. At the same time, humanistic psychology, which considers itself to be the third power in psychology, besides behaviorism and psychoanalysis, developed in the United States. This approach recognized the meaning of subjective experiences. The concept of ASC, in spite of its imprecision, is very helpful as a scientific heading because it enables the integration of interdisciplinary studies of a variety of phenomena, such as meditation, action of psychoactive substances, sensory deprivation, religious experiences, hypnosis, etc. The collection of works Altered States of...

Conclusion Adaptation Allostasis and Anticipation

Homeostasis Allostasis

One impetus for the idea of allostasis was linked to concern about our social world. In a paper by Eyer and Sterling (1977) entitled Stress-Related Mortality and Social Organization, a major portion was a critique of our society and the onset of a variety of disease states. Sterling and Eyer (1988) and others pointed to the detrimental sequelae of chronic arousal (Chrousos and Gold, 1992, 1998 McEwen and Stellar, 1993 Schulkin et al., 1994 Goldstein, 1995a, b). Sterling and Eyer were concerned about widespread chronic fatigue due to overstimulation. They endorsed practices that enhance calmness, such as transcendental meditation and community-based attachments.

Contemporary Theories and Models of Consciousness

In the course of nature, the phase of data collection is, in science, followed by the phase of data ordering, and the creation of models and explanatory frameworks which in due course is followed by their verification. In the domain of altered states of consciousness, there is a multitude of theoretical concepts explaining particular matters, e.g., what is hypnosis, what does meditation consist of for instance, Carrington (1986) quotes 11 conceptions explaining the effects of meditation. However, the concepts are on a general level, which makes it difficult to put them into operation, an indispensable condition for their verification. There are far fewer general approaches and general frameworks of the states of consciousness. Fischer (1971, 1972, 1986) claims that the varieties of states of mind or levels of self-awareness are but experiences along a perception-hallucination continuum from normal consciousness, through sensitivity, creativity, anxiety, acute hyper-phrenic states,...

Application of the Evolutionary Model in Relaxation

The model presents perspectives for reformulation of our understanding of the mechanism of some relaxation techniques through a discussion about meditation and hypnosis. 1.6.1. Meditation The model offers a reformulation of the levels of meditation described by Goleman (1974). According to him (Goleman, 1971, p. 196) meditation is a metatherapy freeing the meditator from past tensions. It seems to proceed on three levels body-level approximation of psychoanalysis desensitation of thoughts as they arise during meditation and desensitation of thoughts of troublesome life situation as they appear in the state of low anxiety. Moreover, in the same paper he described similarities between meditation and dreaming, behavior therapy, biological level anxiety reduction, and seeing things the way are. These aspects of meditation may be explained in terms of the evolutionary model. Following Shapiro's view (1980, p. 14) that meditation refers to a family of techniques which share a conscious...

An Integrated Model of the Main Everyday States of Consciousness

DWSC is a more general notion than the fourth state of consciousness (Wallace et al., 1971) or the relaxation response (Benson, 1975) but those studies on meditation allow for a combination of DWSC with the trophotropic reaction (Hess, 1957). These changes seem not to be attributed to the practice of meditation, but simply to rest (Holmes, 1984). Meditation may be understood as a procedure that allows rest for contemporary people who are used to constant activity and who do not accept any form of natural passivity. This point of view is congruent with the concept of nature's own healing 20-minute period, named the ultradian healing response, as part of the BRAC manifestation (Rossi, 1991).

Psychotic Syndromes

In patients with chronic mild or moderately severe anxiety, benzodiazepines, used sparingly for a few weeks to several months, can be helpful. When chronic treatment is necessary, buspirone, tricyclic antidepressants, and MAO inhibitors may be utilized in selected patients, particularly those with concomitant depression. Beta-blockers may also be useful in certain cases. Referral to a neuropsychologist or psychotherapist for training in self-reliance and relaxation techniques including biofeedback, meditation, and self-hypnosis should also be considered. The treatment of obsessive compulsive disorders should involve both pharmacological and psychological measures. Medications can significantly reduce the symptoms in over 50 percent of patients. Clomipramine is generally considered the drug of first choice, but other drugs with serotonergic properties such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, and clonazepam can be used.

Toward Multideterministic Models of Selfcontrol

These larger models have also refined thinking about the self in self-control. Self-control can be seen as potentially occurring on multiple levels. When a person controls him- or herself, what is occurring descriptively is that the self as agent is having an effect on the self as object. From this descriptive viewpoint (not implying self-duality), the self as agent or object can be referred to linguistically as the whole person (totality) one's mind, brain, cognitions, and feelings one's body or one's behavior. For example, I (self as agent totality) am learning to control my anger (self as object feelings). My mind (self as agent) is helping me learn to relax my body (self as object body). By practicing meditation (self as agent cognitive focusing), I am learning to be more forgiving and accepting (self as object emotions).

The Eastern Perspective

The aim of Eastern practices is to penetrate the veil of the accustomed reality and emerge into an awakened state or enlightenment. It is possible to transcend ego conflicts, view ego demands with detachment, and understand human experience in the light of an awakened state of mind. Meditation is one of the primary practices in the East for shifting away from the active, linear mode and toward the receptive and process-oriented mode. Meditation serves to dismantle the automatism and selectivity of ordinary awareness.

Psychological Approaches to Blood Pressure Reduction

Because of the perceived importance of the sympathetic nervous system in the etiology of essential hypertension, the vast majority of studies examining psychological interventions aimed at lowering blood pressure have focused on interventions that were thought to alter sympathetic nervous system functioning. These include studies employing various relaxation and meditation strategies as well as more direct methods of physiological control obtained via biofeedback. The most recent psychological intervention efforts have added cognitive behavioral stress management components to the more commonly used relaxation strategies to optimize stress-reducing components of these psychological interventions. Let's examine each of these types of psychological intervention and supporting empirical work. Although relaxation and meditation strategies have been used for centuries, they were introduced to the scientific and medical community through the work of Jacobson (1939). According to Jacobson,...

A23 Hume The Achilles Heel of Empiricism

David Hume (1711-1776) lived through the Enlightenment era. He inherited the Lockean tradition, but - paradoxically - undermined the certainties of that classical empiricism (Russell 1946 Kemp Smith 2005). What he wrote remains disconcerting today, but few of his contemporaries grasped its implications. The implications were not only academic. The Bacon-Locke programme was seen as the means by which Paradise on Earth could be brought about by human endeavour. It had also inspired the trend towards political democracy manifested in the American War of Independence and the French Revolution. Hume had consequently created fundamental difficulties not only for scientific epistemology but also for the social and political optimism of the Enlightenment (Kemp Smith 2005).

Self Control Strategies and Goals of Self Control

A self-control strategy refers to a family of techniques that an individual practices in a regular, systematic manner to influence cognitive and behavioral activity in a desired direction. Self-control techniques include behavioral self-control, hypnosis, biofeedback, meditation, and guided imagery, among others. These techniques utilize certain components, which can be analyzed and compared based on the Critical in the development of self-control and the use of self-control strategies is the concept of choice, or decisional control that is, What is the goal for which the person wishes to develop and exercise self-control Several schools of thought are now beginning to integrate the traditional change model of self-control with an acceptance model of self-control. For example, a person who dislikes his or her body image may make a choice to learn self-control strategies involving an assertive change mode of control such as exercising more and developing healthier eating habits. Or...

Introduction Is Thinking a Natural Process or Is It an Action

By thinking we usually mean such activities as calculating, cogitating, pondering, musing, reflecting, meditating, and ruminating. But we might also mean any of a broader range of actions or activities (or dispositions, states, processes, or whatever). I mean remembering, intending, imagining, conceiving, believing, desiring, hoping, feeling emotion, empathizing, following what someone is saying, minding, being conscious of something, and so on. This is admittedly a mixed bag. It might seem that feeling, in particular, should be separated out. Certainly thinking and feeling can be contrasted, but in the context of this book it is what they have in common that is interesting. Anyway, I would like to include all the above as thinking. The general term most philosophers would use is mental phenomena, but, for various reasons, I want to try to do without it. We can use thinking instead.

Threatening Simplifications 251 Morality and Development

Seems that this determinant is not respected by many persons, who state that they have experienced at some point in time supralogical states and as a result seem to be convinced about their type of superiority. It may be that this uncommon tone of arrogance in the speeches of psychologists engaged in meditation causes the greater number of their views to be rejected by psychologists of a different orientation. In effect, experiments on the higher states of consciousness are conducted mainly on the grounds of humanistic and transpersonal psychology, while behavioral psychology does not even take into account the possible existence of a supralogical level.

Hypothesis of Mindfulness Hypofrontaliiy as the Means for the Achievement of the Higher States of Consciousness

The recent data on ASC supporting the hypofrontality hypothesis (Dietrich, 2002) may be incorporated into the presented model as the mean that facilitates the achievement of higher states of consciousness. I have to stress that I formulated this hypothesis on the basis of my personal experience with meditation, yoga breathing and long-distance running. My subjective experiences in those conditions are very similar. I appreciate them very much. It was very difficult for me to accept the hypofrontality hypothesis of ASC originally, mainly due to many ideas and solutions of problems I involuntarily discovered , especially during longdistance running. Those solutions of the problems I was consciously working in vain when writing, came to my mind spontaneously during the ASC. Therefore, hypothesis of hypofrontality in these conditions was apparently contradictory with my experience of creative ideas during those states. The solution of this problem is the hyperfrontality hypothesis the...

Conclusions from the Review of Existing Data and Theories of States of Consciousness and Altered States

Psychology still lacks a generally accepted theory of the organization of mental processes. Moreover, in the psychology of consciousness there is no commonly accepted terminology. The same phenomena and processes are considered in terms of consciousness, mind, psyche. and personality. In a review of the literature, Baruss (1987) indicated that there are at least 23 different definitions of consciousness. Consciousness, unfortunately, slips away from the mainstream of psychology in the 20th century, in spite of the fact that modern psychology began from introspective studies on consciousness at the end of the 19th century. For many years it was not in the focus of interest of psychologists especially when psychoanalysis and behaviourism in Western countries and Pavlovism in Eastern Europe dominated. Consciousness regained the attention of academic researchers in the 1970s-, when Western culture suddenly developed an interest in Eastern culture, including specific states of...

Sullied By Semen Historical Foundations

Forensic science developed with the rise of Enlightenment thinking in the late 1600s. During this time, the ultimate arbiter of truth shifted from the realm of religion to that of science. Forensics evolved naturally within the new scientific paradigm as a means of investigation that could be corroborated by testimony and evidence. This environment proved ripe for the proliferation of inventions, many of which would facilitate the investigation of crime scenes. As I demonstrate below, early forensic investigators, through the use of scientific practices, bestowed the morality of man onto the quality and quantity of their semen. What becomes clear when reading the history of forensic sciences is an allegory in which men as scientists and semen as evidence work in tandem to uncover the Truth.


Higher states possess the effective functions of the usual states, plus heightened perceptions, insights, or affects outside the realm of day-to-day experience. If higher states exist, then our usual state must be suboptimal. This is exactly the claim of Asian psychologies. They argue that our usual state of consciousness is underdeveloped, constricted, and dreamlike, to a remarkable but usually unrecognized degree. Thus the normal person is seen as asleep or dreaming. When the dream is especially painful or disruptive, it becomes a nightmare and is recognized as psy-chopathology. However, since the vast majority of the population dreams, the true state of affairs goes unrecognized. When individuals permanently disidentify or awaken from dreams, they are able to recognize the true nature of both their former state and that of the population. This awakening, known variously as wu, moksha liberation, or enlightenment, is a central aim of Asian psychologies.


One way to help patients with an inability to deal with or communicate emotions (alexithymia) is to use nonverbal techniques, with the goal of helping the patient recognize the relationship between life situations and bodily reactions. Nonverbal therapies such as diet, meditation, physiotherapy, relaxation techniques, biofeedback, massage, and exercise are generally accepted by patients, as long as patients do not interpret their use as meaning that the physician is rejecting or discounting their somatic experience. Empirical evidence on the efficacy of these approaches is needed.

Quality Of Life

Quality of life has become a popular concept that is used by politicians, marketing executives, media and sports personalities, and members of the public. There is an extensive scientific literature on the subject by health practitioners and social scientists. Scholars in ancient China and Greece were interested in quality of life, and renewed interest in it occurred in times of enlightenment in the centuries that followed. In recent history, quality of life emerged as a political entity in the United States in the 1950s and in Europe in the 1960s. Several U.S. presidents, such as Eisenhower, Johnson, and Nixon, popularized the term in presidential commissions and in their speeches. The focus on quality of life in the last half century has increased because there has been a general recognition that the health of countries must be judged in something more than gross economic terms and that the health of individuals is something beyond the absence of illness.

Violence Prevention

The use of meditation as a behavior technique. Behavior Therapy, 4, 743-745. Boudreau, L. (1972). TM and yoga as reciprocal inhibitors. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 3, 97-98. Carrington, P. (1977). Freedom in meditation. New York Anchor Doubleday. Dhanaraj, V., & Singh, M. (1976). Effect of yoga relaxation and transcendental meditation on metabolic rate. In D. Orme-Johnson, L. Donash, & J. Farrow (Eds.), Specific research on the transcendental meditation program, collected papers. Livingston Manor, NY MIU Press. Hagelin, J. S., Rainforth, M. V., Orme-Johnson, D. W., Cavanaugh, K. L., Alexander, C. N., Shatkin, S. F., Davies, J. L., Hughes, A. O., & Ross, E. (1999). Effects of group practice of the transcendental meditation program on preventing violent crime in Washington, DC Results of the national demonstration project, June-July 1993. Social Indicators Research, 47(2), 153-201. Hjelle, L. (1974). Transcendental...

Cairo Egypt

Cairo was a Muslim city, and Islamic doctrines on the Plague and proper responses prevailed. Muhammad had taught that the Plague was entirely the will of Allah it is a mercy to the faithful victims, since they will go immediately to Paradise, and punishment for the infidels. Muslims were to neither flee nor enter a place where the Plague raged but there was no contagion, since God struck down only whom he willed. An early Muslim commentary stated that God has created every soul He has ordered its span of life on earth and the time of its death, the afflictions it will suffer and the benefits it will enjoy. 3 Some considered even prayer for relief to be a faithless act. The simple and strict Muslims had no use for science, but educated physicians tried to reconcile the theories of Hippocrates, Galen, and Avicenna on poisoned air with the operation of God's will. Ibn Hajar in the 1440s, for example, declared that the angel-like spirits or jinn pricked the skin of the chosen victims,...


The opposite view, that shamans are virtual saints whose experiences and states of consciousness are equivalent to those of advanced yogis and meditators, has recently become widespread in the popular culture. However, although many shamans are compassionate, some are wiley tricksters, and phenomenological analyses show that shamanic experiences are quite distinct from yogic and meditative ones.

Leeanne Carey

Sensory Hand Retraining

The personal and functional implications of sensory loss are highlighted in the words of a client who experienced sensory loss after stroke my right side cannot discriminate rough, smooth, rigid or malleable, sharp or blunt, heavy or light. It cannot tell whether that which touches it as hand or tennis racket. it is frustratingly difficult to control or feel relaxed about any right-sided movement . . How does one trust a foot that feels as though it has no real connection with the earth It is difficult to pick up or hold a pair of glasses or a sheet of paper when one's right hand fingers feel uncontrollably strong and very big and clumsy, capable of crushing objects with one's grip yet incapable of letting go or throwing off even the lightest objects (e.g. a tissue) better to feel something-however bizarre-than nothing.

Reflective Listening

The importance of empathic listening has been written about in many approaches to psychotherapy including client-centered, self psychology, psychoanalysis, Gestalt, existential, focusing-oriented, pretherapy, child therapy, marital and couple therapy, disaster-recovery therapy, and clinical supervision. Some emphasize the importance of nonverbal components of empathy. Empathy shares aspects of mental discipline with meditation. Empathic ability is not strongly associated with academic or diagnostic proficiency.


Mindfulness is a concept originating from Buddhist tradition that has been successfully introduced into contemporary psychology and psychotherapy, mainly due to meaningful research results. The comprehensive description of the main aspects of mindfulness was formulated by Miller et al. (1995, p. 193) The term of mindfulness is synonymous with awareness. Mindfulness meditation can be defined as the effort to intentionally pay attention, nonjudgmentally, to present-moment experience and sustain this attention over time. The aim is to cultivate a stable and nonreactive present moment awareness. This is usually accomplished through a regular daily discipline involving both formal and informal mindfulness practices. The mindfulness approach emphasizes meditation as an alternative way of relating to moment-to-moment experience, that thus, more as a 'way of being' rather than as a 'technique' in the narrow and usual therapeutic sense for coping with a specific problems (p. 198). This...


West (1979) noted that studies have shown TM practitioners to stop or to decrease dramatically the usage of non-prescribed drugs (e.g., Shafi, Lavely, & Jaffe, 1975). Transcendental meditation has also been used as an adjunct to psychotherapy. For example, Vahia, Doongaji, Kapoor, Ard-hapurkar, and Ravindra (1973) found that yoga and meditation significantly reduced the anxiety of psychoneurotics. Meditation procedures similar to TM have also been used in the treatment of obesity (Berwick & Oziel, 1973) and claustrophobia (Boudreau, 1972).


Transcendental meditation appears to have a positive effect on personality functioning and well-being. For example, Nystul and Garde (1977) found that individuals practicing TM for a mean of 3 years had significantly more positive self-concepts on the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale in terms of total positive, identity, self-satisfaction, personal self, and moral ethical self. TM has also been associated with increases in self-control, happiness, and self-actualization and decreases in psychopathology, such as psychosis, anxiety, and depression (Seeman, Nidick, & Banta, 1972 Hjelle, 1974 Nystul & Garde, 1977, 1979).


Psychoanalyst constrain competence for development of psychoanalytic concepts to people who completed full psychoanalytic training. They are reluctant toward findings of other psychodynamic psychotherapists. Similarly, transpersonal psychologists tend to emphasize personal experience, what illustrates comments of one of the leading representatives of this approach made to one of my papers. They were extremely helpful, but they started from the statement you should meditate more . However, when there is not sufficient language and theory within the mainstream psychology a community of experiences becomes natural guaranty of avoidance of misunderstanding both for psychoanalysts and transpersonal psychologists. It is a serious problem. On the one hand, it is possible that some important mental phenomena may be ignored by the mainstream psychology due to lack of adequate concepts and methodology for their investigation. On the other


Within this context, much research has been directed toward establishing effective behavioral treatments that may be employed alone or in conjunction with a variety of pharmacological regimens. These behavioral treatments include progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, yoga exercises, autogenic training, biofeedback-assisted relaxation, blood pressure biofeedback, contingency managed aerobics and diet, as well as strategies combining two or more of these programs. In addition, when pharmacological intervention is necessary, a variety of classes of antihypertensions are available. These include B-adrenergic receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and others. Treatment may involve one agent or a combination of these antihypertensive agents to attain normal blood pressure, or, at least, lower blood pressure to a more acceptable level.

The Kundalini injury

Although Om meditation has the potential to promote unusual perceptions, it also has the potential to cause a very painful injury. Om meditation, and meditation in general, can, after long use, cause the devastating injury known as kundalini. This injury, which appears to be nonphysical, happens during the actual meditation. Briefly, the cause of the injury is too much meditation. Specifically, it seems that excessive meditation can cause a neuron-inhabiting bion in the lower spine to self-program, causing an alteration or corruption in one of its learned programs and the ultimate consequence of this reprogramming is the burning pain of the kundalini injury. The details of the kundalini injury are as follows At some point during meditation, and without any warning, there is a strong sensation at the spine in the lower back, near the end of the spine. There is then a sensation of something pushing up the spine from the point of the original sensation. How far this sensation moves up...

Quiet Mind Meditational Therapy Life

Quiet Mind Meditational Therapy Life

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