Somatopsychics Definition

The term somatopsychics is derived from the Greek terms soma, meaning body, and psyche, which has become an English term as well. Somatopsychics refers to psychological effects engendered by somatic conditions. Such psychological states range from normal, to mild mood alterations (like irritability due to low blood sugar), to major psychiatric conditions. Somatopsychics needs to be contrasted with psychoso-matics. Psychosomatic mechanisms operate when psychological conditions produce physical...

Causes Consequences and Reduction of Ethnocentrism

The causes and manifestation of ethnocentrism can take different forms. One type of explanation would be based on personality factors of individuals. Another form of ethnocentric behavior is contextual or situational, such as the loss of jobs due to competition from a neighboring state or groups. One group or nation can be transformed from a friend to an enemy and vice versa after the end of a war. The reasons for another type of ethnocentrism may vary from mistrust of the stranger to the aims...

Primary Secondary And Tertiary Gains And Secondary Losses

A second strategy involves the reduction of stress. Here relationships become more complex. Stress takes many forms. Reducing stress requires changes in the physical and social environment. Environmental stress situations involve a whole complex of interacting variables. Some Freud defined primary gain as a decrease in anxiety from a defensive operation which caused a symptom. Secondary gain was defined as interpersonal or social advantage attained by the patient because of the illness. The...

Severity Of Psychosocial Stressors Scale

The Severity of Psychosocial Stressors Scale was developed for Axis Iv of the third edition and revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The scale assessed precipitating stressors in mental disorders in the year prior to evaluation and formed part of the multiaxial system of modern diagnosis designed to improve the view of patients'background, symptoms, and functioning. The Severity Scale was founded on research on stressors that took place in the...

Rosenzweig Picturefrustration Pf Study

The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) study is a semi-projective technique of personality diagnosis that has been successfully used for the past half-century both as a clinical device and as an investigative procedure. It was developed as a method for exploring concepts of frustration theory and examining some dimensions of projective methodology (Rosenzweig, 1945). Based on earlier experiments on psychodynamic concepts, including frustration, repression, and directions and types of...