Apraxic Agraphia

Single letters are malformed or confused according to their graphic (e.g., M and W) rather than their phonetic similarity. This variety is consequent to the loss of graphic motor programs necessary for writing. Apraxic agraphia resembling pure agraphia has been described in terms of a modality-specific apraxia, but (ideomotor) apraxia is usually present in nonlanguage tasks. In Gerstmann's syndrome, elements of aphasic, spatial, and apraxic agraphia mingle. Lesions are found in the left parietal lobe, especially near the angular and supramarginal gyri.

REFERENCES

Benson, D. F., & Cummings, J. L. (1985). Agraphia. In J. A. M. Frederiks (Ed.), Handbook of clinical neurology: Vol. 1. Clinical neuropsychology (pp. 457-472). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Bub, D., & Chertkow, D. (1988). Agraphia. In F. Boller & J. Graf-man (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology: Vol. 1 (pp. 393-414). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Hinkin, C. H., & Cummings, J. L. (1996). Agraphia. In J. G. Beaumont, P. M. Kenealy, & M. J. C. Rogers (Eds.), The Blackwell dictionary of neuropsychology (pp. 21-31). Cambridge: Blackwell.

Kaplan, E., Gallagher, R. E., & Glosser, G. (1998). Aphasia-related disorders. In M. T. Sarno (Ed.), Acquired aphasia (3rd ed., pp. 309-339). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Roeltgen, D. (1993). Agraphia. In K. M. Heilman & E. Valenstein (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology (3rd ed., pp. 63-89). New York: Oxford University Press.

Roeltgen, D. (1997). Agraphia. In T. E. Feinberg & M. J. Farah (Eds.), Behavioral neurology and neuropsychology (pp. 209217). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Ulatowska, H. K., Baker, T., & Stern, R. F. (1979). Disruption of written language in aphasia. In H. Whitaker & H.A. Whitaker (Eds.), Studies in neurolinguistics: Vol. 4 (pp. 241-268). New York: Academic Press.

Christoph J. G. Lang University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

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