Early attempts to identify the origins of attitudes focused on the needs or functions they may serve. Thus, attitudes were assumed to have instrumental or utilitarian functions (helping people attain rewards and avoid punishments); knowledge functions (organizing and simplifying people's experiences); expressive functions (enabling emotional release); and ego-defensive functions (protecting and enhancing the self). Although it generated considerable interest, the functional approach to attitudes has produced only a modest amount of research and has been of limited practical value.
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With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.