Behaviorism was the most significant movement in experimental psychology for the first three quarters of the twentieth century. It was launched by Watson in 1913, but had already begun in the work of psychologists such as Thorn-dike and Pavlov, and it remains influential today despite an increasing chorus of criticism after about 1960.

The history of behaviorism is told elsewhere in this en cyclopedia; this article is a rational reconstruction of the movement, focusing on psychological rather than philosophical behaviorism. The name behaviorism implies that there is only one kind of behaviorism, but this is far from the case. There have been many behaviorisms, and they can be classified and defined in several ways. Several rational reconstructions of behaviorism are therefore possible, and some are listed at the end of this article.

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