The candidate gene approach is useful if previous research has identified specific biological substrates that are associated with the disorder. For example, if a disorder is known to be associated with elevated or depleted levels of a specific neurotransmitter, plausible candidate genes can be identified that influence some aspect of this neurotransmitter system. Candidate gene studies have identified several intriguing associations between genes in the dopamine and serotonin systems and psychological traits and disorders such as novelty seeking, neuroticism, Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder, Schizophrenia, and Bipolar Disorder. However, subsequent studies often fail to replicate the initial results, suggesting that these genes may have relatively small effects.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.