Conclusions

Psychometric studies conducted since the 1920s indicate that intellectual aging is not a unitary process. Culture-based intelligence is maintained into the 70s, whereas biology-based intellectual abilities begin declining in the 40s. There is growing interest in understanding cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie age-related declines in Gf abilities. At the information-processing level, factors such as WM, processing speed, and inhibition mechanisms are correlated with age differences in intelligence. Furthermore, there is emerging consensus that the pre-frontal cortex and its supporting neuromodulation mechanisms underlie such cognitive functions. At present, the cross-level link from brain aging to intellectual aging continues to be refined.

REFERENCES

Baltes, P. B., & Mayer, U. (1998). The Berlin Aging Study. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Craik, F. I. M., & Salthouse, T. A. (2000). The handbook of aging and cognition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Kaasinen, V., et al. (2000). Age-related dopamine D2/D3 receptor loss in extrastriatal regions of human brain. Neurobiology of Aging, 21, 683-688. Li, K. Z. H., Lindenberger, U., Freund, A. M., & Baltes, P. B. (2001). Walking while memorizing: Age-related differences in compensatory behavior. Psychological Science, 12, 230-237. Li, S.-C., Lindenberger, U., & Sikstrom. S. (2001). Aging cognition: From neuromodulation to representation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5, 479-486. Lindenberger, U., & Baltes, P. B. (1994). Aging and intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human intelligence (Vol. 1, pp. 52-66). New York: MacMillan. Lindenberger, U., Marsiske, M., & Baltes, P. B. (2000). Memorizing while walking: Increase in dual-task costs from young adulthood to old age. Psychology & Aging. Park, D. C., et al. (1996). Mediators of long-term memory performance across the lifespan. Psychology & Aging, 4, 621-637.

Schaie, K. W. (1996). Intellectual development in adulthood: The Seattle Longitudinal Study. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Schneider, E. L., Rowe, J. W., Johnson, T. E., Holbrook, N. J., & Morrison, J. H. (Eds.). (1996). Handbook of the biology of aging (4th ed.). Academic Press.

Shu-Chen Li

Max Planck Institute for Human Development Karen Z. H. Li

Concordia University, Montreal, Canada See also: Aging and Intelligence; Geriatric Psychology

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