Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is most commonly characterized by persistent and chronic inattention and/or excessive motor restlessness and impulsive behavior. Earlier names for ADHD included Minimal Brain Dysfunction, Hyperkinetic Impulse Disorder, and Attention Deficit Disorder with or without Hyperactivity. Since the 1994 publication of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), ADHD has been reorganized into three subtypes: predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I), predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI), and combined (ADHD-C). The inattentive subtype requires six or more symptoms of inattention and five or fewer hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. The hyperactive-impulsive subtype consists of six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity and five or fewer inattentive symptoms. The combined subtype requires six or more out of nine symptoms from both the inattentive and hyperactive-
impulsive categories. Symptoms on the inattentive list are related to poor attention and organizational skills, forget-fulness, and distractibility. Symptoms on the hyperactive-impulsive list refer to restlessness, excessive talking, and interrupting. According to DSM-IV, the symptoms must be present for at least 6 months and observable by 7 years of age. For the purpose of diagnosis, symptom manifestation should be developmentally inappropriate and exhibited in two or more settings (e.g., home and school).
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