Factor Structure

Beck, Steer, and Brown (1996) found that the BDI-II was composed of two positively correlated cognitive and noncog-

nitive (somatic-affective) dimensions for both psychiatric outpatients and students. The noncognitive factor is represented by somatic symptoms, such as loss of energy, and affective symptoms, such as irritability, whereas the cognitive factor is composed of psychological symptoms, such as self-dislike and worthlessness. Steer, Ball, Ranieri, and Beck (1999) also identified these two factors in 210 adult outpatients (age 18 or older) who were diagnosed with DSM-IV depressive disorders, as did Steer, Kumar, Ranieri, and Beck (1998) in 210 adolescent psychiatric outpatients and Steer, Rissmiller, and Beck (2000) in 130 depressed geriatric inpatients (age 55 or older). These two dimensions were also reported by Steer and Clark (1997) and Dozois, Dobson, and Ahnberg (1998) for college students and by Ar-nau, Meagher, Norris, and Bramson (2001) for primary-care medical patients. However, Osman and colleagues (1997) found three factors representing negative attitudes, performance difficulty, and somatic elements in 230 college students, and Buckley, Parker, and Heggie (2001) also found three factors representing cognitive, affective, and somatic dimensions in 416 male substance abusers.

REFERENCES

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC:

Author.

Arnau, R. C., Meagher, M. W., Norris, M. P., & Bramson, R. (2001). Psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with primary care medical patients. Health Psychology, 20, 112-119.

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1993). Manual for the Beck Depression

Inventory. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571. Buckley, T. C., Parker, J. D., & Heggie, J. (2001). A psychometric evaluation of the BDI-II in treatment-seeking substance abusers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 20, 197-204. Dozois, D. J. A., Dobson, K. S., & Ahnberg, J. L. (1998). A psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Psychological Assessment, 10, 83-89. Osman, A., Downs, W. R., Barrios, F. X., Kopper, B. A., Gutierrez, P. M., & Chiros, C. E. (1997). Factor structure and psychometric characteristics of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 19, 359-375. Riskind, J. H., Beck, A. T., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1987). Taking the measure of anxiety and depression: Validity of the reconstructed Hamilton scales. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 474-479. Steer, R. A., Ball, R., Ranieri, W. F., & Beck, A. T. (1997). Further evidence for the construct validity of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with psychiatric outpatients. Psychological Reports, 80, 443-446.

Steer, R. A., Ball, R., Ranieri, W. F., & Beck, A. T. (1999). Dimensions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in clinically depressed outpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 117128.

Steer, R. A., & Clark, D. A. (1997). Psychometric characteristics of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with college students. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 330, 128-136.

Steer, R. A., Kumar, G., Ranieri, W. F., & Beck, A. T. (1998). Use of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with adolescent psychiatric outpatients. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 20, 127-137.

Steer, R. A., Rissmiller, D. F., & Beck, A. T. (2000). Use of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with depressed geriatric inpatients. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 338, 311-318.

Robert A. Steer

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey School of Osteopathic Medicine

Aaron T. Beck

Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research

See also: Depression; Reliability; Self-report

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