Beck, Steer, and Brown (1996) found that the BDI-II was composed of two positively correlated cognitive and noncog-
nitive (somatic-affective) dimensions for both psychiatric outpatients and students. The noncognitive factor is represented by somatic symptoms, such as loss of energy, and affective symptoms, such as irritability, whereas the cognitive factor is composed of psychological symptoms, such as self-dislike and worthlessness. Steer, Ball, Ranieri, and Beck (1999) also identified these two factors in 210 adult outpatients (age 18 or older) who were diagnosed with DSM-IV depressive disorders, as did Steer, Kumar, Ranieri, and Beck (1998) in 210 adolescent psychiatric outpatients and Steer, Rissmiller, and Beck (2000) in 130 depressed geriatric inpatients (age 55 or older). These two dimensions were also reported by Steer and Clark (1997) and Dozois, Dobson, and Ahnberg (1998) for college students and by Ar-nau, Meagher, Norris, and Bramson (2001) for primary-care medical patients. However, Osman and colleagues (1997) found three factors representing negative attitudes, performance difficulty, and somatic elements in 230 college students, and Buckley, Parker, and Heggie (2001) also found three factors representing cognitive, affective, and somatic dimensions in 416 male substance abusers.
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Steer, R. A., Ball, R., Ranieri, W. F., & Beck, A. T. (1999). Dimensions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in clinically depressed outpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 117128.
Steer, R. A., & Clark, D. A. (1997). Psychometric characteristics of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with college students. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 330, 128-136.
Steer, R. A., Kumar, G., Ranieri, W. F., & Beck, A. T. (1998). Use of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with adolescent psychiatric outpatients. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 20, 127-137.
Steer, R. A., Rissmiller, D. F., & Beck, A. T. (2000). Use of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with depressed geriatric inpatients. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 338, 311-318.
Robert A. Steer
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey School of Osteopathic Medicine
Aaron T. Beck
Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research
See also: Depression; Reliability; Self-report
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