Emotional dysregulation is especially prominent in Anxiety and Mood Disorders. Patients with various .Anxiety Disorders have been scanned during symptom provocation to elucidate the pathophysiology of anxiety. Metabolic abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex, the cingulate, and the caudate nucleus have been noted in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Rauch & Shin, 1997). For other Anxiety Disorders, findings are mixed although the anterior paralimbic cortex and the amygdala region have been implicated, particularly in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Rauch & Shin, 1997), and Social Phobia (Tillfors et al., 2001). The amygdala region may be a common site of action for behavioral and pharmacological treatments of Social Phobia (Furmark et al., 2002).
In major depression, metabolic abnormalities have been reported mainly in the prefrontal, cingulate, amygdala, and thalamic regions. Functional imaging data suggest that depression is associated both with mood-dependent and traitlike neurophysiological abnormalities in brain regions that are at least partly related to anatomical abnormalities revealed by structural imaging techniques (Drevets, 2000).
Studies of pain are also relevant for affective neuroscience because pain regulates mood and motivational behavior. Human pain imaging has shown involvement of the anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices, as well as subcortical regions like the thalamus (Ingvar, 1999). Recent imaging findings suggest that placebo effects mimic brain alterations resulting from opioid analgesia (Petrovic, Kalso, Peterson, & Ingvar, 2002).
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It seems like you hear it all the time from nearly every one you know I'm SO stressed out!? Pressures abound in this world today. Those pressures cause stress and anxiety, and often we are ill-equipped to deal with those stressors that trigger anxiety and other feelings that can make us sick. Literally, sick.