Other disorders can cooccur with PTSD, ASD, or adjustment disorder. One of the most commonly cooccurring disorders is depression. In a national survey of more than 5,000 individuals, nearly half of individuals meeting criteria for PTSD also met criteria for depression (Kessler et al., 1995). PTSD has also been associated with higher rates of substance use, especially among war veterans (Kulka et al., 1990). In addition, PTSD has been associated with other anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder (Kessler et al., 1995).
In addition to other diagnoses, there are a number of responses that are often associated with PTSD. For example, individuals with PTSD often experience dissociative symptoms during or after the traumatic event (Griffin, Resick, & Mechanic, 1997; van der Kolk & Fisler, 1995). Deficits in memory specific to the trauma, as well as deficits in short-term memory in general, have also been noted (Bremner et al., 1993; Briere & Conte, 1993). Not only psychological reactions, but also sustained physiological reactions have been well documented (Friedman, 2001; Yehuda, Giller, Le-vengood, Southwick, & Siever, 1995).
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