Until recently, Western psychologists assumed that their own psychologies were the only ones worthy of serious consideration, but this unfortunate attitude is changing rapidly.

We will limit discussion here to four Asian psycholo-gies—the Yogic and Buddhist psychologies of India and the Taoist and neo-Confucian systems of China. These also display significant commonalities and have therefore been referred to as aspects of the "perennial wisdom," "perennial psychology," or "consciousness disciplines."

Researchers increasingly describe development as pro ceeding through three major stages: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional (or prepersonal, personal, and transpersonal). Psychotherapies address three correlative levels of health: pathology reduction, existential issues, and transpersonal concerns. Western psychologies have developed sophisticated prepersonal and personal maps and therapies. By contrast, Asian psychologies focus almost exclusively on existential and transpersonal concerns and offer little on early development or severe psycho-pathology.

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