Parkinson's disease is characterized as a degenerative movement disorder that very clearly results from a loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and an ensuing loss of dopamine innervation to the basal ganglia. The motor disorder progresses from tremor and slurred speech to akinesia and rigidity. The treatment of Parkinson's disease is initially dopamine replacement in the form of the dopamine precursor l-dopa. However, to be effective, sufficient dopamine synthetic capacity must be available in axon terminals in the basal ganglia. Thus, as the degeneration progresses, l-dopa becomes a progressively less effective treatment. Based upon understanding of basal ganglia circuitry, manipulating other neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine is also useful in ameliorating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, no treatment is available that reverses or inhibits the neurodegeneration.
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With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.