Bender (1938) used her test mainly as a clinical tool to observe the performance of her patients. Nevertheless, several scoring procedures were developed over the years to tap into the potential of the test to assess visuoperceptive cortical functions or as a projective technique for the study of personality.
The best known scoring procedure seems to be the one devised by Pascal and Suttell (1951) who identified over 100
scorable characteristics of the Bender Test in adolescents and adults. Keogh and Smith (1961) and Koppitz (1975), among others, devised scoring systems for kindergarten and elementary school children. Furthermore, Koppitz (1975) included emotional indicators in the analysis of test protocols. Other researchers have developed scoring procedures centered on whole performance rather than on the analysis of individual reproductions. A prototypical example of such a scoring system would be the Psychopathol-ogy Scale devised by Hutt (1985). Hutt, in addition, developed another scale that taps into the projective potential of the Bender Test: the Adience-Abience Scale.
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