Developmental studies on the Bender Test have shown that age, social class, cultural factors, ethnic group, and academic standing impact significantly on test performance (Koppitz, 1975; Brito et al., 1998). Additionally, developmental Bender and IQ test scores are significantly correlated, but only within the average and below-average IQ range (Koppitz, 1975). The finding of Brito and Santos (1996) that the number of emotional indicators significantly correlates with factor scores derived from the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito & Pinto, 1991) suggests that the number of emotional indicators is a valid measure.
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