Five Steps to Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness is an audio targeted at using the most natural way to maintain a good focus and the mindfulness people need for their daily activities. It combines the various religious methods to reach a balance in ensuring the users reach the highest point of mindfulness they can ever attain. To help them reach this height, the program had been prepared to take only seven minutes of your time. Pending the time of its usage, the users will not have to spend a lot of time dealing with it. The Seven Minute Mindfulness was designed to be used on any device. Getting started is simple and will take just a few minutes after ordering. It comes with various bonuses like The Seven Minute Mindfulness Guidebook (A digital manual that comes along with the audio version); Your Little Book Of Mindfulness Exercises (A digital guide to some exercises that can be practised in the house)The product is in a digital format of Audio messages and has been created at a very affordable price. In case it does not meet their demands or desires, the users have the right to ask for a refund of their money within three months. The implication is that they are given the chance to try it at home and if they suddenly become sceptical or grow cold feet, they will get a 100% refund. Continue reading...

Seven Minute Mindfulness Summary


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The Mindful Reset

The mindful reset enables you to determine environmental causes although reaping benefits for you towards the fullest extent. It's guaranteed that your life high quality could be enhanced within a couple days of this program purchase. This course is very good for helping to deal with anxiety and many people find that it reduces its impact. If you have regular panic attacks, it is also very good for you .this program is scientifically tested and gives you quality amount of strategies to help you get a moment out of your stressful schedule. This program is easy to use and comprehend, it saves your income, and it has specialized features. The mindful reset also offers 24/7 support in the event of any difficulty or complaint. Although mindfulness was originally practiced by Buddhists, it is more of a life practice. This course is completely secular and does not require you to believe anything specific nor will it ask you not to believe anything that you already believe. Almost everyone can benefit from this course. If you feel stressed or not stressed, if you feel low or happy. We can all benefit from learning to be more present and to find new ways of being in this world that are more helpful to ourselves and others. Continue reading...

The Mindful Reset Summary

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Framework for Origin and Neural Elaboration of Human Consciousness

Another construct that benefits from such an integrated model of limbic-cortical function emphasizing vertical control is the problem of where basic conscious awareness is represented and how it may have originated. Several lines of evidence suggest that periconscious, affective processing of emotion takes place subcortically, in areas such as the brainstem, hypothalamus, and amygdala, while cognitive appraisal of emotions takes place in the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the dorsal ACC and possibly other paralimbic structures (anterior temporal poles) would represent the alarm center, alerting the organism that immediate conscious action needs to be taken in order to remove the threat (Liotti et al., 2001). This interpretation fits nicely with Donald Klein's notion of an abnormal suffocation alarm center as central to the pathogenesis of panic disorder (Klein, 1993), a disease dominated by body-centered anxious feelings and anticipations,...


Mindlessness may be defined as a state of reduced cognitive activity in which the individual processes cues from the environment in a relatively automatic manner without reference to potentially novel (or simply other) aspects of those cues. Mindfulness, in contrast, is a state in which environmental cues are consciously manipulated, and the individual is engaged in actively constructing his or her environment. This is in marked contrast to the mindless state in which one deals with an already constructed environment. Mindlessness is pervasive. In fact, for the typical individual, mindfulness is expected to occur only (1) when significantly more effort is demanded by the situation than was originally demanded, (2) when the external factors in the situation disrupt initiation or the mindless sequence, (3) when external factors prevent the completion of the behavior, or (4) when negative or positive consequences are experienced that are sufficiently discrepant with the consequences of...

Hypothesis of Mindfulness Hypofrontaliiy as the Means for the Achievement of the Higher States of Consciousness

Eventually, all maneuvers aiming at decreasing the task-oriented activity decrease culturally conditioned tendency to task oriented activity and enables achievement of higher states of consciousness for people that are equipped with such possibilities and provokes a risk of regression for those who are not well prepared. If this arguing is accepted, the practice of mindfulness may be understood as a gradual learning of the save leaving of task-oriented activity (hypofrontality), that gives a chance for personal development. The idea of independent tendencies for oscillations between the domination of the goal and spontaneous imagination activity related to the domination of left right brain activity and between hyper and hypo activity in frontal areas of the brain, related with compulsion to the task-oriented activity mindfulness can explain the contradictory results of EEG and brain imaging studies on states of consciousness described by Dietrich (2002).


Mindfulness is a concept originating from Buddhist tradition that has been successfully introduced into contemporary psychology and psychotherapy, mainly due to meaningful research results. The comprehensive description of the main aspects of mindfulness was formulated by Miller et al. (1995, p. 193) The term of mindfulness is synonymous with awareness. Mindfulness meditation can be defined as the effort to intentionally pay attention, nonjudgmentally, to present-moment experience and sustain this attention over time. The aim is to cultivate a stable and nonreactive present moment awareness. This is usually accomplished through a regular daily discipline involving both formal and informal mindfulness practices. The mindfulness approach emphasizes meditation as an alternative way of relating to moment-to-moment experience, that thus, more as a 'way of being' rather than as a 'technique' in the narrow and usual therapeutic sense for coping with a specific problems (p. 198). This...

Explanations of mental processes

Success is often judged by how well the mental process can be modeled by a computer program, as I explain in Chapter 4. Classical cognitive scientists have had great success in making computer models of the sort of things human beings generally find difficult, such as playing chess, solving mathematical problems, diagnosing rare diseases, or finding flaws in complicated machinery. These are processes that we often know how to describe, things we do with a good deal of conscious awareness of how we do them. Thus experts in these areas could tell classical computer scientists how they did these things, and the computer people could program their computers to do them just as well - or even better. But when the computer scientists tried to get their digital computers to do things humans do easily - such as making sense of simple stories with obvious details left out, or looking at a two-dimensional picture and seeing individual three-dimensional objects in it, or carrying on a sensible...

Thinking about the brain

Think for a few moments about a very special machine, your brain -an organ of just 1.2 kg, containing one hundred billion nerve cells, none of which alone has any idea who or what you are. In fact the very idea that a cell can have an idea seems silly. A single cell after all is far too simple an entity. However, conscious awareness of one's self comes from just that nerve cells communicating with one another by a hundred trillion interconnections. When you think about it this is a deeply puzzling fact of life. It may not be entirely unreasonable therefore to suppose that such a machine must be endowed with miraculous properties. But while the world is full of mystery, science has no place for miracles and the 21st century's most challenging scientific problem is nothing short of explaining how the brain works in purely material terms. Notwithstanding the brain's well-developed personal vanity, we must grant that it provides you with some very distinctive abilities. It operates in the...

Case Study 1 Deliriuma Common Disorder Of Attentional Function And Working Memory

Delirium may be the most commonplace disturbance of consciousness encountered by psychiatric clinicians, as well as by other physicians, and is virtually ubiquitous on medical services in general hospitals. Its quite commonplace nature contrasts with a curious neglect within both clinical neuroscience and consciousness studies of the disorder, as relatively little attention has been paid to understanding the underlying neural and neurodynamic foundations for delirium and confusional states. Delirium is most classically associated with toxic-metabolic disturbances of a wide variety, or neuro-modulatory disruptions secondary to psychotropic medicines, often superimposed upon and degrading a baseline dementia of the Alzheimer's type. In terms of neuromodula-tory disruptions, it is most typically associated with the effect of anticholinergics, but it is also commonly seen in dopamine precursor loading, from the effects of opiates, and from gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist effects of...

Twostep Unconscious Influence Inattentional Blindness

Our strategy is to present a large Roelofs inducing frame, present at high contrast and for a reasonable length of time, but to prevent its perception by diverting attention elsewhere with the phenomenon of inattentional blindness. Mack and Rock (1998) popularized inattentional blindness as a method for investigating the role of conscious awareness in perception. In their experiments, subjects were asked to report the presence of an unexpected stimulus. They often failed to report the appearance of many properties of an unexpected stimulus, even if the eyes were directly fixated on the location of its appearance. We review their methods here because similar methods will be employed in the following experiments.

Summary Heuristicsquestions For Future Research

To more fully understand the nature of conscious processes would pay enormous dividends to all areas of psychiatry, illuminating many of the still well-hidden secrets within the mind-brain realms from where emotional distress arises. Such an understanding of functional neural integration in the brain would also no doubt open many new mysteries and questions. A special focus on early neurodevelopmental processes will also have crucially important implications for psychiatry (Schore, 2001), as the affective climate of early life must have a profound effect on the developing brain, substantially increasing or reducing an epigenetic vulnerability in later life to many psychiatric conditions. There is already abundant evidence from preclinical studies that positive social interactions have robust and life-long benefits for the neuroemo-tional resilience of young animals (Meaney, 2001). Such an understanding of early neurodevelopmental processes will eventually help clarify positive and...

Theoretical Framework For Understanding Stress Responsive Systems

Perhaps the most important distinction between environmental and physiological stressors is that physiological stressors do not necessarily require cognitive appraisal, emotional evaluation, or conscious awareness to exert their effects. For instance, exposure to infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, toxins, etc.), hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and hypothermia are all examples of physiological stressors that elicit a stress reaction. Clearly, once the seriousness of the physiological challenge passes some identifiable threshold, the individual would normally develop a subjective experience of stress, which may then further activate stress responsive systems. Nevertheless, psychic stressors are qualitatively different than environmental ones and may activate stress responses via distinct pathways (Herman et al., 1996 Herman and Cullinan, 1997).

Some Thoughts on Methodology

In addition, Reber (i992a,b) argued that because human consciousness and its accompanying functions are late arrivals on the evolutionary scene, there should be particular patterns of dissociation between these two systems. The key predictions of the model for this discussion are Implicit learning is the process whereby organisms acquire knowledge about the regularities of complex environments without intending to do so and largely independently of conscious awareness of the nature of what was learned (Stadler & Frensch, 1998 Reber, 1967 Reber, 1993). The complex environments include virtually every facet of human life, including language learning, trait knowledge, categorization, acculturation, and the development of aesthetic preferences. The claim we are making is that people extract information about the world more often than they are aware and that this knowledge exists in a tacit form, influencing thought and behavior while itself remaining mostly concealed from conscious...

The Ventrodorsal Stream Action In Space And Space Perception

In conclusion, lesions of IPL and its frontal targets both in monkeys and humans determine body awareness deficits. Furthermore, it must be stressed that not only does IPL appear to play a fundamental role in body and spatial awareness, but it is also necessary for the awareness of the quality of objects presented within peripersonal space. Evidence in favor of this point of view comes from a series of clinical and neuropsychological studies. Marshall and Halligan (1988) reported the case of a lady who, due to a severe visual neglect, explicitly denied any difference between the drawing of an intact house and that of the same house when burning, if the relevant features for the discrimination were on the neglected side. However, when forced to choose the house where she would prefer to live, she consistently choose the intact one, showing in this way an implicit knowledge of the content she was unable to report. Berti and Rizzolatti (1992) confirmed these findings in a systematic way....

Historical Views Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud was the first modern-day theorist to explore personality in depth. He divided awareness into three levels (1) conscious awareness, (2) preconscious awareness, and (3) unconscious awareness. Conscious awareness includes any materials, experiences, learnings, perceptions, feelings, or thoughts in immediate awareness. The preconscious an intermediate level consists of any materials that enter conscious awareness. The unconscious comprises all repressed thoughts, feelings, behaviors, memories, experiences, learnings, defense mechanisms, sexual impulses, instincts, id impulses, wishes, dreams, psychological conflicts, and so on and remains outside awareness (Hall & Lindsey, 1978 Norby & Hall, 1974).

The Challenge of Attending to Thinking Dispositions

Of mind Baron (1985) as part of his search-inference framework Ennis (1986) and Norris (1995) as part of analyses of critical thinking Langer (1989, p. 44), with the notion of mindfulness, which she defined as an open, creative, and probabilistic state of mind and Facione et al. (1995). Models of self-regulation have emphasized volitional aspects of thinking and individuals' motivation to engage thoughtfully (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1994). We and our colleagues have done extensive work in this area, referring to intellectual character as a particular perspective on dispositions (Ritchhart, 2002 Tishman, 1994, 1995) and to dispositions themselves (Perkins, Jay, & Tishman, 1993 Perkins et al., 2000 Perkins & Tishman, 2001 Perkins & Ritchhart, 2004).

Embedded Processes Working Memory Model

Although Baddeley's multi-component working-memory model has dominated the field for much of the past thirty years, there are alternative conceptions of working memory. Cowan (1988, 1995) has proposed a model that tightly integrates short- and long-term memory systems with attention. In his Embedded-Processes working-memory model (Figure 19.4 ), Cowan defines working memory as the set of cognitive processes that keep mental representations in an easily accessible state. Within this system, information can either be within the focus of attention, which Cowan believes is capacity limited, or in active memory, which Cowan suggests is time limited. The focus of attention is similar to James's (1890) concept of primary memory and is equated to the information that is currently in conscious awareness. In contrast, active memory, a concept similar to Hebb's (1949) cell assemblies or Ericsson and Kintsch's (1 995) long-term working memory, refers to information that has higher activation...

Rectification of terms

In humans, sexual dysfunctions form around the categories of sexual arousal, desire, orgasm, and pain. Arousal may be separated into physiologic genital arousal (sometimes referred to as potency ) and subjective or psychologic arousal that denotes a conscious awareness of the genital sensations. However, this psychologic arousal may be an important component of sexual desire (sometimes referred to as libido or motivation ). Sexual arousal and desire sum into behavioral responses of copulation

Other Possible Transmitter Substances Related to Sleep

Why slow-wave sleep is broken periodically by REM sleep is not understood. However, drugs that mimic the action of acetylcholine increase the occurrence of REM sleep. Therefore, it has been postulated that the large acetylcholine-secreting neurons in the upper brain stem reticular formation might, through their extensive efferent fibers, activate many portions of the brain. This theoretically could cause the excess activity that occurs in certain brain regions in REM sleep, even though the signals are not channeled appropriately in the brain to cause normal conscious awareness that is characteristic of wakefulness.

Conclusions from Researchers Investigating Altered States of Consciousness Mechanisms

Conceptualized as the relaxation response, that is, a specific hypometabolic state of psychophysical regeneration understood as the trophotropic reaction (Benson, 1975). However, a review of the experimental evidence of somatic arousal reduction in meditation by Holmes (1984, p. 1) did not reveal any consistent differences between meditation and resting subjects on measure of heart rate, electrodermal activity, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, skin temperature, oxygen consumption, EMG activity, blood flow, or various biochemical factors. A crucial experiment documenting specific psychophysiological reactions in meditation has not yet been done. We are left with a number of reports susceptible to various interpretations. Detailed findings about meditation have been presented in some reviews (Woolfolk, 1975 Davidson, 1976 Stroebel and Glueck 1976 Shapiro and Gilbert 1978 Shapiro, 1980 Schuman, 1980 Shapiro and Walsh, 1984 West, 1987), but conclusions...

Subliminal Perception

Beginning with the end of the 1950s, a great deal of public concern was expressed when it was claimed that a method existed for presenting advertising messages that could influence behavior at an unconscious level. A typical example might be at a movie theatre, where the message Buy popcorn could be given during the film, and even though viewers were not consciously aware of its presence, they might still be motivated to purchase popcorn. The procedures involved quickly flashing messages on the screen at a size, speed, or brightness that was too insignificant to produce conscious awareness. Such stimuli are called subliminal, from the Latin for below (sub) the threshold for consciousness (limen). Subliminal perception comes about when such stimuli, even though apparently unnoticed, appear to exert an effect on later behavior. Clinical psychologists have cited another aspect of how emotional factors play a role in subliminal perception. This is in the case of perceptual defense....

Studies of Cerebral Metabolism and Blood Flow in Anxiety Disorders

Panic disorder (PD) may be characterized by fundamental amygdala hyperresponsivity to subtle environmental cues, triggering full-scale threat-related responses in the absence of conscious awareness. Resting-state neuroimaging studies have suggested abnormal hippocampal activity with abnormally low left right ratios of parahippocampal blood flow and a rightward shift after treatment with imipramine (Nordahl et al., 1998). One study demonstrated a reduced blood flow in hippocampal area bilaterally (De Cristofaro et al., 1993). In contrast, others have observed elevated metabolism in the left hippocampus and parahippocampal area (Bisaga et al., 1998). Symptom provocation studies have revealed reduced activity in widespread cortical regions, including prefrontal cortex, during symptomatic states (Fischer et al., 1998 Reiman et al., 1989 Stewart et al., 1988 Woods et al., 1988).

Gestalt Therapy Origins

Gestalt therapy is an existential and phenomenological approach, emphasizing the principles of present-centered awareness and immediate experience. To discover how one blocks one's flow of awareness and aliveness, the individual in therapy is directed to fully experience current thoughts, feelings, and body sensations. Gestalt therapy was developed by Frederick S. (Fritz) Perls, M.D., who was trained in classical Freudian psychoanalysis. Perls's broad interests in existentialism, Eastern religions, and Gestalt psychology led him away from the Freudian viewpoint toward his own theory and method of therapy. Perls saw the human being as a unified organism, an integration of mental, physical, emotional, and sensory processes expressed in the present moment. Wulf (1998) notes that together with Perls, two other cofounders, Laura Perls and Paul Goodman, also were instrumental in creating the new synthesis.

Physiological effects

The electroencephalogram shows lower delta power and increased beta activity than normal during sleep in primary insomnia, suggesting that there may be a reduction in the homeostatic drive to sleep as well as hyperarousal. Intrusion of alpha waves is common and may be due to a lower threshold for arousal to stimuli such as pain or noise. It is associated with awareness of thoughts during sleep, and with the perception that sleep is unrefreshing.

Hemsleys and Grays Model

Without effort or conscious awareness and, potentially, in parallel with other processes) instead seems novel, engaging finite, controlled information processing resources (effortful, conscious processing requiring atten-tional focus and operating in a serial fashion Schneider & Shiffrin, 1977). Consistent with an earlier proposal put forth by Nuechterlein and Dawson (1984), Hemsley (1994) and Gray (1998) argue that schizophrenia patients are significantly more likely to engage these controlled processes than are nonpsy-chotic subjects, resulting in patients' engaging information processing bottlenecks significantly more frequently, and, through physiological mechanisms discussed subsequently, this disparity leads to the conscious experience of psychosis. conditioned responses to conditioned stimuli of two types stimuli to which the subject was already exposed prior to association with the present response and stimuli otherwise novel to the subject when first associated with the...

An Evolutionary Leveled Model of the Main States of Consciousness

In this presentation the neo-Jacksonian view will be applied. It should be remembered that it includes many simplifications, but it is in a way compatible with the traditional psychoanalytic view, which makes some further illustrative figures more clear. The main idea of the model may be preserved when psychodynamic and neo-Jacksonian levels of mental processes organization are replaced by other developmental theories. It is noteworthy that the model seems to be quite compatible with the levels of emotional awareness distinguished by Lane and Schwartz (1987), who based it on the theories of Piaget and Werner. They described such levels as (1) bodily sensations, (2) the body in action, (3) individual feelings, (4) blends of feelings, (5) and blends of blends of feelings.

The other end of life Why do we age and die

To close this discussion of development, let's contemplate briefly the termination of the life cycle. Development from fertilized egg to adult is just one end of a series of biological changes that all organisms experience. For more than a century, development has represented a central challenge to experimental biologists, and it is currently a major focus of research activity. The inevitability of aging and death haunts the human consciousness and would seem to pose an equivalent intellectual challenge, yet we seem to have little in the way of explanation for why this happens to us. We plant annuals and perennials in the garden and we stand in awe of trees that have lived for centuries. We know that many insects may live for only days or weeks, a dog or cat for little more than a decade, while we and elephants and sea turtles may hope for several score years. But whether an individual is claimed by accident or infirmity, the end is inevitable. Why

Herta Flor1 and Frank Andrasik2

This type of central alteration may correspond to what Katz and Melzack (1990) have termed a somatosensory pain memory in patients with phantom limb pain. Although they referred mainly to explicit memories, that is, the patients' recollection that the phantom pain was similar to previously experienced pains, somatosensory memories can also be implicit as already stated by them. Implicit pain memories are based on changes in the brain that are not open to conscious awareness but lead to behavioral and perceptual changes - such as hyperalgesia and allodynia - the patient is not aware of. It is therefore impossible for the patient to counteract these pain memories. This type of memory trace may lead to pain perception in the absence of peripheral stimulation since an expansion of a representational zone is related to higher acuity in the perception of tactile input (Merzenich et al., 1984).


The characteristics of impulsivity as manifest in these disorders attest to its complexity. Impulsive responses are unplanned and usually unconscious. The cues that trigger the responses can be internal thoughts or external stimuli. The behaviors often result in social sanctions which, even though part of the conscious awareness of the impulsive person before committing the impulsive act, are usually not effective enough in themselves to prevent the acts from occurring. Persons who commit impulsive acts that have negative consequences often experience regret or even remorse after the act because they knew better. Yet their lack of control of these adverse behaviors will continue until special efforts are made to intervene.

Marriage Counseling

There are several major theoretical approaches to marriage counseling. One of the most thoroughly researched approaches is behavioral marriage counseling (Jacobson & Margolin, 1979), which focuses on increasing pleasing exchanges (i.e., caring behaviors) between partners, as well as improving communication and problem-solving skills. A related approach focuses not only on modifying behavior, but also on modifying partners' interpretation of that behavior. In this approach, labeled cognitive-behavioral marriage counseling (Epstein & Baucom, 2002), the goal is to teach couples ways of identifying and modifying cognitions that are associated with marital problems. A second treatment approach is emotion-focused marriage counseling, which conceptualizes relationship problems in terms of the disruption of attachment bonds (Greenberg & Johnson, 1988). This approach targets problems of adult attachment insecurity by modifying couples' interaction patterns and the emotional responses that...

EEG waveforms

Alpha intrusion is associated with awareness of thoughts during sleep and with the perception that sleep is unrefreshing. It may be related to the establishment of explicit memory of which the subject is aware, but not implicit memory which takes place subliminally. It may therefore represent an abnormal form of information processing during sleep which is associated with a low threshold for arousal. It may be due to a failure of the thalamocortical projections to modify the activity of the cerebral cortex in the usual way during NREM sleep.

Psychological Health

Asian psychologies emphasize that specific healthy mental qualities must be deliberately cultivated to ensure psychological health and maturity, for example, concentration, compassion, and mindfulness. The quality of mindful-ness precise awareness of the nature of the stimuli being observed might be regarded as a highly developed form of the Freudian observing ego.


Patients with pure amnesia have a pervasive impairment on tests of declarative memory. The anterograde amnesia extends to memory for all sorts of materials and events in all modalities. It is apparent in both easy and difficult tests of memory. The severity of amnesia varies considerably, however, so that a mildly amnesic patient could perform well on easy tests of memory. Because judgment is preserved in amnesic patients, they are usually aware of having a memory problem. They may, however, underestimate the severity of the problem because they are aware only of memory difficulties at the present moment and cannot remember the sorts of memory failures they experienced earlier.


Summing up, Kepinski proposed the universal model describing the structure and dynamics of human consciousness in normal as well as in pathological states. His concepts are developed up to this day both in the direction of applications in psychology and psychiatry and creating exact models, though it seems that their description and development are still not satisfactory. The significance of the information metabolism theory goes far beyond psychology and psychiatry. The concepts of Kepinski not only concern human psyche but also apply to a very wide class of cybernetic objects self-controlling open systems. Thus, a metaphor relating the Kepinski's theory to processes occurring in a biological cell not only has the meaning that is assigned to a metaphor in a cognitive process (compare remarks about a metaphor in the introduction to this chapter) but also directly indicates the generality of the information metabolism concept. Due to its generality this approach has already been...

Types of Memory

Nondeclarative memory refers to the many forms of memory that are not retrieved explicitly or intentionally but reflexively or incidentally. Remembering how to swim or ride a bicycle belong in this category. Nondeclarative forms of memory do not depend on the psychological processes or brain regions that are vital for declarative memory. These forms of memory guide current behavior on the basis of past experiences unrelated to any conscious awareness of those experiences, and therefore are referred to as implicit memory. Implicit forms of memory include perceptual, motor, and cognitive skill learning (sometimes referred to as procedural memory), which is the increased accuracy, speed, or skill acquired for a given task during multiple training sessions in the absence of conscious awareness classic and other sorts of conditioning, in which repeated pairing of an unconditioned stimulus such as a tone with an unconditioned response such as salivation at the sight of food, leads to a...

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