Books On Positive Thinking

Ho'oponopono Certification

The Ho'oponopono Certification will teach you some fundamental strategies that will help you do away with all the negative energies. By so doing, you will become a positive person, leading a positive life as well. The program is a creation of two individuals, Dr. Joe Vitale and Mathew Dixon. The former is an actor and has featured in many books, apart from being a professional in the implementation of the law of attraction in ensuring people lead better lives. Mathew is an influential healing musician. The two individuals teamed up to modernize the Ho'oponopono strategy in the program. The program was established following a thorough research and tests. It is a step by step guide that will ensure you successfully let go of your cognizant and intuitive memory, bringing to an end all your problems. The program consists of 8 eight videos, each taking 40 minutes. These videos will explain each and every detail of the program to ensure that you fully understand all the necessary techniques. There is no reason to hesitate. Purchase it today transform your life for good. Read more here...

Hooponopono Certification Summary

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Contents: Ebook, Video Course
Author: Dr. Joe Vitale and Mathew Dixon
Official Website: www.joevitalecertified.com
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My Hooponopono Certification Review

Highly Recommended

I've really worked on the chapters in this book and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

All the modules inside this ebook are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Cognitive Therapy Definition

Cognitive therapy is a psychotherapeutic approach that teaches individuals that their interpretations of situations influence their emotions, physiological reactions, behaviors, and motivations. Cognitive therapy is a time-effective, structured, collaborative form of treatment that utilizes psychoeducation and psychological skills acquisition. Treatment focuses on helping patients to recognize thematic biases in their thinking to generate alternative, adaptive viewpoints and to use new cognitive, behavioral, and experiential strategies to improve mood and enhance problem-solving skills.

Cognitive behavioural therapies

The techniques of cognitive behavioural therapy are, however, time consuming, expensive and require a skilled therapist. The treatments should be individualized for each patient, but can be delivered in group therapy. The optimum duration and frequency of treatment have yet to be established 8 . Follow-up is required to deal with problems that may arise and to motivate the patient to continue with treatment. It is uncertain which modes of behavioural therapy are most effective for the different types of insomnia. Cognitive therapy requires a good relationship between the patient and the therapist and is most effective if the patient has an active and coping style. It may be best to combine cognitive behavioural therapy with a course of up to 1 month of hypnotic treatment in order to break the established patterns of thoughts and behaviour, as well as to give rapid relief of insomnia which can then be maintained by the cognitive behavioural therapy. A similar approach using a beta...

Cognitive therapy

Chronic insomnia is characterized by intrusive thoughts and worries and often a racing mind. In contrast good sleepers often think of nothing in particular before falling asleep. Concerns about not sleeping, or the urgency for sleep, the extent of the consequences of poor sleep and the need to control sleep all lead to frustration, performance anxiety, arousal and difficulty in initiating sleep. Cognitive therapy aims to change these maladapt-ive thoughts, which need to be accurately identified, discussed with the patient, and then realistic expectations set. The patient should become able to accept and tolerate times of sleepiness without becoming emotionally distressed or frustrated. Cognitive therapy includes techniques which enhance the ability to cope with stresses which may be contributing to insomnia, and it aims to change the assumptions and perceptions about insomnia 9 .

Spatial Processing During Mental Imagery A Neurofunctional Theory

Why is the study of perception such a success story Consider five reasons. First, perception involves an easily observable stimulus-response relationship (even if the response is simply a report of the qualities of the observed stimulus). Because properties of the stimulus are easily controlled, it is relatively simple to measure and describe the stimulus-response relationship. Second, because several nonhuman species have visual systems similar to our own, the study of animal brains has greatly illuminated the neural mechanisms of perception. Third, the attempt to develop artificial visual systems has led to useful insights into the nature of vision per se (e.g., Marr, 1982). Fourth, methods from cognitive psychology have been used to study patients who have suffered focal brain lesions (e.g., see Farah, 1984). Finally, the advent of neuroimaging methodologies has allowed researchers to study the human brain in action. In the case of visual mental imagery, the confluence of these...

Specimen Availability

In some cases, a potential surrogate tissue may be useful only at certain times. For example, human hair follicles exist in several different growing states, with the majority (80 ) in anaphase (actively growing). These are the best for RNA extraction. In cataphase, the hair follicles are moribund, and are consequently much smaller and yield correspondingly small quantities of RNA. In other cases a potential surrogate tissue may only be available from certain populations (e.g., sperm from adult males) or at certain times (e.g., placental tissue and cord blood from postpartum females, and milk from lactating females). Another factor that might occasionally limit availability of samples is cultural, religious, or personal beliefs that prohibit the provision of certain biospecimens, most notably blood or semen.

Electrical Probes Of Mind And Brain

Chapter 3 provides a very useful summary of many findings that indicate different cognitive function (e.g., working memory and attention) often recruit the same brain area. The authors are surely correct that cognitive psychology textbook chapter titles are not an appropriate guide to brain localization. However, before we conclude that different operations activate the same brain area, we need to be more clear about what makes a difference in mental operations. For example, theories of working memory assume the involvement of attentional networks, so it would be surprising not to find attention areas active in working memory tasks, but it is rather easy to design an attention task that does not involve working memory. We also need to be more explicit about what the same brain area means (i.e., the extent of overlap needed to assume identity). Finally we need to know when in the task a particular area is active. Both perception and imagery tasks may activate prestriate visual areas,...

Greater Interactions between Work on Concepts and Psycholinguistic Research

There is an opportunity for theorists and experimenters here to provide an account of the interface between these functions. One possibility, for example, is to use sentence comprehension techniques to track the way that the lexical content of a word in speech or text is transformed in deeper processing (see Pinango, Zurif, & Jackendoff, 1999, for one effort in this direction). Another type of effort at integration is Wolff and Song's (2003) work on causal verbs and people's perception of cause in which they contrast predictions derived from cognitive linguistics with those from cognitive psychology.

Maintenance Process and Reactions to Injustice

According to Lerner, instances of injustice arouse strong emotional reactions and defensive coping reactions. Typical emotional reactions range from empathic pain, concern, or pity, to revulsion, fear, or even panic (Lerner, 1980). People have developed sophisticated ways of warding off such negative emotions and maintaining their belief in a just world. Lerner outlines rational and nonrational strategies that function to eliminate or neutralize threats to the belief in a just world. Rational strategies include prevention and restitution. Here, social devices (e.g., social agencies) or one's own efforts may prevent injustice, restore justice, or at least compensate the victims of injustice. Acceptance of one's limitations is a cognitive strategy where the individual convinces him- or herself that if given infinite time and resources, justice could have been achieved however, there is only so much that one person can do.

Psychosocial Approaches

Some, albeit limited, empirical support. One is family or marital therapy, particularly psychoeducational approaches that focus on teaching patients and their family members about bipolar disorder and how to manage it and effective ways to communicate and solve family problems (Miklowitz & Goldstein, 1997 Miklowitz et al., 2000). Asecond is interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, an individual therapy that focuses on helping the patient understand and renegotiate the interpersonal context associated with mood disorder symptoms (Frank, Swartz, & Kupfer, 2000). Patients learn to stabilize sleep wake rhythms and other daily routines, particularly in the face of environmental triggers for disruption. A third treatment is individual cognitive-behavioral therapy, in which patients learn to identify, evaluate, and restructure cognitive distortions, and develop illness management strategies such as behavioral activation, drug compliance monitoring, and the appropriate use of support systems...

Models Aiming at Cognitive Adequacy

Research results in cognitive psychology related to mental imagery have inspired a number of technical reasoning systems in AI. An early application of results in vision and visual mental imagery research has been developed by Funt (1980). His diagrammatic reasoning system WHISPER employs a circular representation structure for performing on mechanical reasoning tasks. This retina represents entities perceived from a blocks world representation and carries out visuo-spatial operations like rotation, scaling, or translation. Moreover, it is used for analyzing spatial properties like symmetries or topological relations. The

Child And Adolescent Depression

Although the cause of depression is not yet determined, it is thought that depression is most likely to occur when a number of risk factors come together. Biological vulnerability is one of these factors Children whose parents have had significant depression are at a markedly increased risk for depression as well as other behavioral and emotional problems. Children may inherit a genetic risk for depression or temperamental qualities such as sensitivity to negative emotions, or they may learn depressive coping styles from their parents. Both adults and young people who are depressed share a depressive or negative way of thinking that leads them to view themselves, the world, and their future in a negative way. This is frequently described as seeing the cup as half empty, while others can look at the same situation and see the cup as half full. Many times depressed individuals come to see all failures as due to their own inherent faults but any success as pure chance or a fluke. This is...

Jonathan St B T Evans

The study of deductive reasoning has been a major field of cognitive psychology for the past 40 years or so (Evans, 2002 Evans, Newstead, & Byrne, 1993 Manktelow, 1 999 ). The field has its origins in philosophy, within the ancient discipline of logic, and reflects the once influential view known as logicism in which logic is proposed to be the basis for rational human thinking. This view was prevalent in the 1 960s when psychological study of deductive reasoning became an established field in psychology, especially reflecting the theories of the great developmental psychologist Jean Piaget (e.g., Inhelder & Piaget, 1958). Logicism was also influentially promoted to psychologists studying reasoning in a famous paper by Henle (1 962). At this time, rationality was clearly tied to logicality. logicians). This is one weakness of logic in describing everyday reasoning, but there are others. The main limitation is that deductive reasoning does not allow you to learn anything new at all...

Biases in Deductive Reasoning

The external validity argument is that the demonstration of cognitive biases and illusions in the psychological laboratory does not necessarily tell us anything about the real world. This one I have much less sympathy with. The laws of psychology apply in the laboratory, as well as everywhere else, and many of the biases that have been discovered have been shown to also affect expert groups. For example, base rate neglect in statistical reasoning has been shown many times in medical and other expert groups (Koehler, 1996), and there are numerous real world studies of heuristics and biases (Fischhoff, 2002).

Conclusions and Future Directions

The deductive reasoning field has seen discussion and debate of a wide range of theoretical ideas, a number of which have been described here. This includes the long-running debate over whether rule-based mental logics or mental model theory provides the better account of basic deductive competence, as well as the development of accounts based on content-specific reasoning, such as pragmatic reasoning schemas, relevance theory, and Darwinian algorithms. It has been a major focus for the development of dual-process theories of cognition, even though these have a much wider application. It has also been one of the major fields (alongside intuitive and statistical judgment) in which cognitive biases have been studied and their implications for human rationality debated at length.

Clinical Applications

An agenda is set each session and includes assessing the patient's mood, reviewing the main points from the previous session as well as the homework assignment, applying new cognitive and behavioral skills to ongoing issues and goals, summarizing the main ideas from the present session, getting and giving feedback about the session, and col-laboratively generating ideas for new homework assignments. The therapist and patient collaborate to understand the patient's worldview and empirically evaluate specific target areas (e.g., social avoidance, procrastination, impul-sivity). Cognitive therapists use a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and experiential interventions to monitor, test, and modify problematic beliefs and their concomitant emotions to strengthen problem-solving skills to replace compensatory behaviors with more adaptive strategies and to develop an adaptive coping repertoire. Homework is assigned to reinforce work done in session, apply therapy lessons to the outside...

The Eysenckian Superfactors in Relation to Performance and Social Behavior

Looking at the relationship between arousal level and extraversion-introversion from another (motivational) perspective, Eysenck hypothesized that stimuli of the same intensity evoke in extraverts and introverts different emotional states due to their differences in chronic arousal level. Just as there is an optimal level of arousal for performance, so there is an optimal level of arousal for subjective feelings of contentment, happiness or generally preferred hedonic tone (H. J. Eysenck, 1981, p. 18). Referring to Wundt's ( 1887) idea that stimuli of low intensity generate positive emotions whereas stimuli of high intensity produce negative emotions, Eysenck hypothesized that the relationship between level of sensory input and experienced hedonic tone depends on the individual's position on the extraversion-introversion dimension. This is illustrated in Figure 2.4, originally constructed by H. J. Eysenck (1963) at the time when the inhibition theory was still in force. As can be...

General Conclusions and Future Directions

One final way in which investigating the cognitive effects of interacting motivational forces could be fruitfully expanded is by synthesizing work on how motivation influences reasoning with work on how affect influences reasoning (see Forgas, 2000 Martin & Clore, 2001). Great strides have been made in determining the mechanisms by which affective and emotional states can alter people's judgments. Many of the changes in the quality and quantity of information processing found in this research bear a striking resemblance to the motivational effects reviewed here. For example, positive moods have generally been found to support less thorough and complex information processing, similar to closure motivation, whereas negative moods have generally been found to support more thorough and complex information processing, similar to accuracy motivation (for a review, see Schwarz & Clore, 1996). This is not to say, however, that the effects reviewed here are actually just due to changes in...

Effects of Axis II Diagnosis on Treatment Outcome

The work of Longabaugh and colleagues (39) suggests that pessimistic generalizations of negative outcomes for ASPD substance abusers may be due to a failure to account for the effects of treatment matching. These investigators assessed drinking outcomes for both antisocial and non-antisocial alcoholics receiving either extended cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for 16 sessions or relationship enhancement (RE) for up to 20 sessions, both delivered in a group format. The CBT sessions included functional analysis of drinking antecedents and consequences, and cognitive restructuring that focused on topics such as stimulus control, rearranging consequences, assertion training, problem solving, and dealing with slips and relapses. The RE treatment also included six sessions of functional analysis, but the remaining sessions focused on patients' relationships, with the participation of significant others in some of the sessions. No difference was found between the two treatment groups on...

Comparing Different Cognitive Functions Within Subjects

Only a few functional neuroimaging studies have tried such direct within-subject comparisons. One reason for this scarcity is historical because most cognitive researchers specialize in a single cognitive function, it is only natural that they maintained this specialization when they started conducting functional neuro-imaging studies. In addition, functional neuroimaging researchers inherited a long list of research questions about each particular function from cognitive psychology, and this list of questions kept them focused for many years on their favorite function. Another reason for the dearth of cross-function studies is that these studies are particularly difficult to design. First, the paradigms used to investigate different cognitive functions tend to be dissimilar (e.g., the cuing paradigm used to study attention vs. the old new recognition paradigm used to study episodic retrieval), and it is challenging to design tasks for two different functions that have a similar...

Studies of Information Processing Deficits Related to Formal Thought Disorder

Disorder, it is important to consider the allocation of working memory capacity, a process shown to involve activation of dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex as well as more modality-specific regions of posterior cortex (e.g., Garavan et al., 2000), as well as availability of free capacity, which appears to be reflected in the activity of dorso- (Cal-licott et al., 1999) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Rypma, Berger, & D'Espasito 2002). Numerous studies (e.g., Docherty & Gordinier, 1999 Harvey & Pedley, 1989 Nuechterlein et al., 1986) have found correlational evidence of a relationship between working-memory capacity and aspects of formal thought disorder. Attempting to clarify the direction of this relationship, Barch and Berenbaum (1 994) report that, among nonill subjects, reduction in overall processing capacity (achieved through a dual-task manipulation) is associated with decreases in verbosity and syntactic complexity, which are verbal phenomena included in formal thought...

Negative Affect Hypothesis

Summary of Findings Supporting the Negative Affect Hypothesis The Negative Affect Hypothesis stipulates that persons who experience a range of negative emotions more frequently or more intensely will exhibit a greater risk for developing essential hypertension than persons who experience such emotions less often or with less intensity. Studies designed to examine this hypothesis have approached it by defining negative affect broadly to include a number of different types of negative emotions or more narrowly to focus on an individual source of negative affect like anxiety, anger, hostility, or depression. Although findings across these studies have been mixed, there is enough prospective evidence available to suggest that at least for some individuals the frequent, intense exposure to negative emotions may play a role in the etiology of essential hypertension. In particular, prospective

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

CBT is based on the behavioral and cognitive-behavioral models of OCD and is the most effective short- and long-term treatment for this disorder. Patients treated with CBT often achieve up to 65 reduction in their OCD symptoms. The two main CBT procedures are (1) exposure with response prevention (EX RP) and (2) cognitive therapy. Exposure involves prolonged and repeated confrontation with situations that evoke obsessional fears, while response prevention entails refraining from carrying out compulsive rituals. EX RP is thought to work by demonstrating that obsessional fears are unrealistic and that rituals are unnecessary to prevent feared catastrophes. Cognitive therapy involves using rational discourse to help patients recognize and correct faulty appraisals of intrusive thoughts. It is often used in conjunction with EX RP.

Cognitive Coping Strategies

Mental strategies or ways to use thoughts or imagination to cope with pain are usually called cognitive coping strategies. Distraction involves thinking about other things to divert attention from pain and can be internal, such as imagining a pleasant scene, or external, such as focusing on a specific aspect of the environment. Reinterpreting pain sensations is imagining that the pain is something else, such as numbness or a warm feeling. Calming self-statements refers to statements that one might tell oneself to provide comfort or encouragement (e.g., I know I can handle this ). Ignoring pain is denying that the pain exists. Wishful thinking, praying, or hoping involves telling oneself that the pain will go away some day by faith, an act of God, or something magical. Fear and anger self-statements are statements one might tell oneself that promote fear or anger, such as I am afraid I am going to die. Catastrophizing refers to the use of negative self-statements and overly pessimistic...

Analyses of Underlying Processes

Analyses of underlying processes using methods from general cognitive psychology and cognitive science can help bring order and clarity to the field. There are many examples of tasks that are superficially similar (such as transitive inference and transitivity of choice) yet entail fundamentally different processes, and it only creates confusion to categorize them together. Correspondingly, there are tasks that are superficially very different, yet may entail underlying cognitive processes with important common properties. An example would be the corresponding difficulties of the dimensional change card sort task, and ternary relational tasks such as transitivity, class inclusion, and the concept of mind. We cannot order tasks for difficulty, nor discover important equivalences, unless we look beneath surface properties. Cognitive psychology has progressed to the point at which we can do this with reasonable confidence.

Assessment and Treatment of PTSD

A second promising category of empirically validated treatments for PTSD is cognitive restructuring therapy. Based on cognitive therapy principles, this approach is designed to identify and modify dysfunctional trauma-related beliefs and to teach specific cognitive coping skills. The therapy process may also involve tasks that include an element of exposure, such as writing or describing the trauma to uncover trauma-related cognitions.

Toward a More Systemic Approach to Psychological Health

Such a multilevel systemic view of psychological health is complementary, rather than exclusive, addressing issues and pathologies at various developmental levels. For example, a comprehensive treatment plan for depression, depending upon the client, may include addressing biochemical imbalances (biomedical), learning coping strategies to handle environmental stressors and behavioral repertoire deficits (behavioral), interpreting cognitive distortions (cognitive), overcoming lack of trust in oneself (humanistic), examining unconscious psychodynamic and intrapsychic conflicts (psychodynamic), and exploring meaning and ultimate spiritual questions (existential transpersonal). California Pacific Medical Center See also Cognitive Therapy Control Therapy

Psychological Science

Modern-day cognitive psychology emerged in the 1970s, approximately 100 years after the birth of psychological science, and today is almost synonymous with experimental psychology. Cognitive psychology's subject matter returns to questions of mind, but not in the form conceptualized by Wundt. Rather than examining the nature of conscious experience from the perspective of the observer of that experience, cognitive psychology focuses on theoretical mental processes as they are manifested in observable measures such as accuracy and response time. In this approach, specific characteristics of mental processes are hypothesized and the observable consequences of assumptions about the characteristics are derived. Experiments are then conducted to determine whether or not the hypothesized consequences occur, with a positive result bolstering confidence in the power of the theoretical assumptions. This form of experimentation has as its empirical base observable responses made by the...

Information Metabolism in Interpersonal Contacts 31 Introduction

This section aims to present a concise presentation of the information metabolism as a model that helps in the understanding of human experiences. The model is complementary to the computational models of information processing applied in cognitive psychology. These models include neurophysiological processes such as working memory, production memory, and declarative memory, storage, retrieval, execution match, encoding, and performances, whereas information metabolism focuses on mental phenomena. The interpersonal version of the information metabolism model illustrates the main mental structures, including their multileveled organization, as well as interpersonal interaction on those levels.

Psychotherapy Definition and Utilization

What is psychotherapy Although originally defined as one-on-one sessions between a patient and therapist with the intent of changing the inner workings of the patient's psychological life, over the last several decades psychotherapy has broadened in its formats, participants, procedures, and focus (there are now over 250 different forms of psychotherapy) so that any definition of psychotherapy must be far-ranging enough to encompass the full spectrum of different psychotherapies. What relaxation therapy, family therapy, cognitive therapy, group therapy, insight-oriented therapy, play therapy (with children), exposure therapy to name a few have in common is a set of psychological or behavioral procedures, delivered by one or more therapists, designed to change the thoughts, feelings, somatic symptoms, or behaviors of one or more participants who are seeking help.

Selfreport And Selfratings

Self-report methods have several disadvantages. The accuracy of self-reported data can be difficult to determine. Information may be omitted, added, or distorted because of natural errors and imperfections in memory. self-reports might also be based on personal beliefs or theories concerning the causes and stability of one's own behavior (Ross, 1989). Self-reported information can also be minimized or withheld when undesirable behaviors are being assessed. similarly, more desirable responses may be exaggerated.

Thinking about People Theory of Mind

Tudes ( personal belief that guns were an important means to redress grievances ), and psychological problems ( a darkly disturbed man who drove himself to success and destruction, a psychological problem with being challenged ). He asked his fellow student Kaiping Peng what kinds of accounts of the murder were being given in Chinese newspapers. They could scarcely have been more different. Chinese reporters emphasized causes that had to do with the context in which Lu operated. Explanations centered on Lu's relationships ( did not get along with his advisor, rivalry with slain student, isolation from Chinese community ), pressures in Chinese society ( victim of Chinese 'Top Student' educational policy ) and aspects of the American context ( availability of guns in the U. S. ). (Morris & Peng, pp. 111-112).

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

There are currently no empirically validated treatments for HSDD. Sex therapy techniques generally consist of 15 to 45 sessions of cognitive therapy aimed at restructuring thoughts or beliefs that may adversely impact sexual desire (e.g., women should not initiate sexual activities, sex is dirty ) and to address negative underlying relationship issues. Behavioral approaches are utilized to teach patients to express intimacy and affection in both nonsexual (e.g., holding hands, hugging) and sexual ways, to incorporate new techniques into their sexual repertoire that may enhance their sexual pleasure, and to increase sexual communication. Testosterone is effective in restoring sexual desire in women with abnormally low testosterone levels (e.g., secondary to removal of the adrenal glands, bilateral removal of the ovaries, menopause).

Sexual Aversion Disorder

Defined as the avoidance of sexual genital contact with a partner, Sexual Aversion Disorder (SAD) has a high comor-bidity with history of sexual abuse, vaginismus, and dys-pareunia. Treatment for this condition often combines couples therapy and cognitive therapy and focuses on solving conflict areas within the couple, such as emotional differences and issues of control. Anxiety reduction techniques such as systematic desensitization are used when the aversion is accompanied by strong feelings of anxiety. Systematic desensitization consists of identifying a hierarchy of sexual activities that provoke anxiety and then pairing relaxation techniques with imagining the sexual activity. The goal is for the patient to feel relaxed while imagining each sexual activity and eventually while actually engaging in each sexual activity. Some therapists feel that, during treatment of sexual abuse survivors, trauma-related issues need to be resolved before SAD is addressed.

Sexual Pain Disorders Dyspareunia

Education and information about dyspareunia, training in progressive muscle relaxation and abdominal breathing, Kegel exercises to train the patient to identify vaginal tenseness and relaxation, use of vaginal dilators, distraction techniques to direct the patient's focus away from pain cues, communication training, and cognitive restructuring of negative thoughts. During biofeedback, the patient is instructed to contract and relax her vaginal muscles while a surface electromyographic sensor inserted in her vagina provides her with feedback on muscular tenseness.

Dewdneys guidelines for bad science

Clearly connectionists have not succumbed to this pitfall. None of their individual results has been exciting enough to warrant a press conference it takes long, careful study to appreciate how important these ideas are. Connectionist research is published in journals of the same type and quality as those that publish the results of other research in cognitive psychology.

Causal Thinking in Science

One important issue in the causal reasoning literature that is directly relevant to scientific thinking is the extent to which scientists and nonscientists are governed by the search for causal mechanisms (i.e., the chain of events that lead from a cause to an effect) versus the search for statistical data (i.e., how often variables co-occur). This dichotomy can be boiled down to the search for qualitative versus quantitative information about the paradigm the scientist is investigating. Researchers from a number of cognitive psychology laboratories have found that people prefer to gather more information about an underlying mechanism than covariation between a cause and an effect (e.g., Ahn et al., 1995). That is, the predominant strategy that students in scientific thinking simulations use is to gather as much information as possible about how the objects under investigation work rather than collecting large amounts of quantitative data to determine whether the observations hold...

Emotional Regulatory Network

The primary structures in the circuitry for emotional regulation include the orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BA 12), regions of the DLPFC, and the amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate. Other interconnected structures implicated in aspects of emotion, affective style, and the maintenance, amplification, and attenuation of an emotion include the hypothalamus, insular cortex, and ventral striatum. This system also suppresses negative emotions such as anger and impulsive aggression, partly through seroton-ergic neuromodulation.363 Antidepressant and antianxiety medications act on the system through such modulation.

Tower Of Hanoi Problem

D., Owen, A. M., Frith, C. D., Dolan, R. J., Frackowiak, R. S. J., & Robbins, T. W. (1996). Neural systems engaged by planning APET study of the Tower of London task. Neuropsychologia, 34, 515-526. Goel, V., & Grafman, J. (1995). Are the frontal lobes implicated in planning functions Interpreting data from the Tower of Hanoi. Neuropsychologia, 33, 623-642. Kotovsky, K., Hayes, J. R., & Simon, H. A. (1985). Why are some problems hard Evidence from the Tower of Hanoi. Cognitive Psychology, 17, 248-294. Morris, R. G., Miotto, E. C., Feigenbaum, J. D., Bullock, P., & Polkey, C. E. (1997). The effect of goal-subgoal conflict on planning ability after frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions in humans. Neuropsychologia, 35, 1147-1157. Schmidtke, K., Handschu, R., & Vollmer, H. (1996). Cognitive procedural learning in amnesia. Brain and Cognition, 32, 44-467. Shallice, T. (1982). Specific impairments of planning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London,...

Definitions of Culture

Since much cross-cultural research has the goal of understanding concepts as seen by people in the culture under study, the influence of cognitive psychology has been strong. Much research has focused on people's knowledge about their world, their communication with one another given this shared knowledge, and the transmittal of this knowledge to the next generation. Given this emphasis, a third definition of culture suggested by Clifford Geertz (1973, p. 89) captures the flavor of much cross-cultural research Culture denotes an historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life.

Strategy Usage and Effective Coping

Social Cognition, 7, 92-112. Norem, J. K., & Cantor, N. (1986a). Anticipatory and post hoc cushioning strategies Optimism and defensive pessimism in risky situations. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 347362. Showers, C., & Ruben, C. (1990). Distinguishing defensive pessimism from depression Negative expectations and positive coping mechanisms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 385399.

Assertiveness Training

Assertiveness training (AT) was introduced by .Andrew Salted, developed by Joseph Wolpe, and popularized by Wolpe and Lazarus. Rarely used alone, AT is used most frequently as one aspect of a broader therapeutic program. The goals of AT include (1) increased awareness of personal rights (2) differentiating between nonassertiveness, assertiveness, aggressiveness, and passive-aggressiveness and (3) learning both verbal and nonverbal assertiveness skills. Assertiveness skills involve saying no asking for favors or making requests expressing positive and negative feelings and initiating, continuing, and terminating conversations.

Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Strategies

The principal aim of cognitive therapy is to unravel the core beliefs underlying the patient's hypochondriacal thoughts. Cognitive therapists help their patients understand that an organic medical disorder is not the only reasonable explanation for highly distressing physical symptoms and that distorted patterns of cognition have problematic emotional and behavioral conse quences. In cognitive therapy, patients learn to detect and dispute their irrational beliefs about having a serious illness by discriminating these beliefs from rational alternatives (e.g., statistical probability of having the serious illness, alternative and less-threatening explanations of why they might be experiencing pain) (Salkovskis 1996). Patients need to internalize new rational beliefs by employing cognitive, emotive, and behavioral methods of challenging irrational beliefs a process they can use throughout their lives. chondriacal anxiety responded well to clomipramine therapy, to the point that she was...

Computerassisted Psychotherapy

The most recent computer programs for psychotherapy have incorporated new technologies geared toward heightening the power of the learning experience and improving ease of use. For example, Wright and coworkers have designed and tested the first multimedia program for computerassisted CBT (Kenwright et al., 2001 Colby, 1995 Colby & Colby, 1990). Research with this software demonstrated high acceptance ratings by patients, significant increases in learning of cognitive therapy, and equivalent efficacy to standard CBT (Kenwright et al., 2001 Colby, 1995). Video, audio, and other multimedia elements are used to engage the user and stimulate affect. Users participate in a variety of interactive self-help exercises and are assigned homework to encourage use of CBT in real-life situations. Are-vised, DVD-ROM version of this software ( Good Days Ahead The Multimedia Program for Cognitive Therapy ) is now available (Colby & Colby, 1990).

Adolescent Sex Offenders

An increasing number of rehabilitation programs are now available for the specific treatment of the adolescent sex offender. A National Adolescent Perpetrator Network has been established with guidelines for treatment components and goals. These include confronting denial, accepting responsibility, understanding the pattern or cycle of sexually offensive behaviors, developing empathy for victims, controlling deviant sexual arousal, combating cognitive distortions that trigger offending, expressing emotions and the self, developing trust, remediating social skills deficits, and preventing relapse. In addition, these intensive treatment programs focus on didactic instruction on normal human sexuality, training in interpersonal and dating skills, and the teaching of anger control techniques. Psychodynamic-oriented therapy has shown disappointing results, whereas various behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and prescriptive approaches have proved to be most efficacious. Many programs use a...

Alternative Treatments

Fava et al. (2000) randomly assigned 20 patients with DSM-IV hypochondriasis to either explanatory therapy or to a waiting-list control group followed by explanatory therapy. Explanatory therapy led to improvement in both groups as evidenced by a reduction in hypochondriasis, depression, and use of health care services at 6-month follow-up. The therapy consisted of 8 sessions over a 16-week period, each lasting a half hour. During treatment, patients were encouraged to record their worst illness fears in a diary and to write alternative interpretations of their somatic symptoms. Patients were educated about the role of perceived threat and excessive attention in the enhancement or induction of somatic symptoms. Ratings tools included the Illness Attitude Scale, Clinical Interview for Depression, and Rating Scale of Somatic Symptoms. Although the patients who underwent explanatory therapy showed significantly greater improvement than the waiting-list control group on most measures,...

Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire

Psychotherapy has a role in the treatment of depression and in conflicted relationships. Specific psychotherapeutic interventions for HSD have been described as having the following components (1) affectual awareness, that basically strives for identification of positive and negative emotions related to sexual interaction and desire insight and understanding, where a framework to understand the problem is offered to the patient cognitive and systemic therapy, when individual psychologic causes are addressed and interaction factors are addressed and corrected and finally, behavioral intervention, where a number of strategies are utilized to gradually overcome obstacles to sexual interaction.

Life tasks and challenges in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors

Coping with cancer throughout survivorship requires an individual to continuously appraise cancer's threat and potential for change as it appears and re-appears in different forms at various times throughout the remainder of life (for example, as threat to reproduction as discrimination when seeking insurance or employment when starting a family when certain environmental stimuli remind the survivor of his her experience when other friends or family members are diagnosed with cancer if or when a recurrence or second cancer is diagnosed). Cancer survivors confront, on various occasions, reminders of their cancer and thus have multiple opportunities to experience either positive or negative feelings associated with the illness. They see television programmes and commercials with cancer-related themes, receive announcements regarding support groups, picnics and celebrations, hear through various media outlets about meetings with other cancer survivors and learn of family members, friends...

Early Research on Medical Problem Solving and Reasoning

There have been two primary approaches to research investigating clinical reasoning in medicine - the decision - analytic approach and the information-processing or problemsolving approach. Decision analysis uses a formal quantitative model of inference and decision making as the standard of comparison (Dowie & Elstein, 19 8 8). It compares the performance of a physician with the mathematical model by focusing on reasoning fallacies and biases inherent in human clinical decision making (Leaper et al., 1972). In contrast, the information-processing approach focuses on the description of cognitive processes in reasoning tasks and the development of cognitive models of performance, typically relying on protocol analysis (Ericsson and Simon, 1 993 ) and other observational techniques. processing psychology accelerated dramatically. Problem solving was conceived of as a search in a problem space in which a problem solver was viewed as selecting an option (e.g., a hypothesis or an...

Sources of Self Efficacy

People's beliefs about their efficacy are constructed from four principal sources of information. The most effective way of instilling a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences. Successes build a robust belief in one's personal efficacy. Failures undermine it, especially if frequent failures occur in early phases in the development of competencies. Development of resilient self-efficacy requires experiences in overcoming obstacles through perseverant effort. The second method is by social modeling. Models serve as sources of competencies and motivation. Seeing people similar to oneself succeed by perseverant effort raises observers'beliefs in their own capabilities. Social persuasion is the third mode of influence. Realistic boosts in efficacy can lead people to exert greater effort, which increases their chances of success. People also rely partly on their physiological and mood states in judging their capabilities. The fourth way of altering self-efficacy beliefs is...

Just Noticeable Difference

It should be noted that remnants of this early interest in the concepts of absolute and difference thresholds are reflected in the psychological literature even today, although the concept of threshold has to some extent fallen into disrepute (apart from its value in assessing the capacity of sensory systems). This is due, in part, to the influence of contemporary cognitive psychology and current views of the individual as an active processor of information. Specifically, it would seem that notions of thresholds have been largely supplanted by concepts derived from signal detection theory (Green & Swets, 1974), where it is assumed that

Strong Interest Inventory

This difficulty in ignoring incongruent color words while color naming has come to be called the Stroop effect, or Stroop interference. Following Cattell's lead, the effect is seen as resulting from word reading being so automated that it cannot be prevented even when it disrupts performance. As the gold-standard measure of attention, this effect is one of the largest and most stable phenomena in cognitive psychology, having served as a fundamental tool in hundreds of investigations (for a review, see MacLeod, 1991a). As evidence of its impact, many other analogous interference situations have emerged over the years Figure 1 illustrates a few of these.

Steven A Sloman David A Lagnado

For Quine, our notions of similarity and the way in which we group things become increasingly sophisticated and abstract, culminating, he believed, in their eventual removal from mature science altogether. This conclusion seems to sit uneasily with his claims about theoretical similarity. Nevertheless, as mere humans, we will always be left with a spectrum of similarity notions and systems of kinds applicable as the context demands, which accounts for the coexistence of a variety of procedures for carrying out inductive inference, a plurality that appears to be echoed in more recent cognitive psychology (e.g., Cheng & Holyoak, 1985).

Application and Techniques of Behavior Modification

On cognitive theories and causation in human behavior. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 23, 257-268. Lindsley, O. R. (1956). Operant conditioning methods applied to research in chronic schizophrenia. Psychiatric Research Reports, 5, 118-139. Mahoney, M. J. (1993). Introduction to special section Theoretical developments in the cognitive psychotherapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 187-193. Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes (G. V. Anrep, Trans.). New Sweet, A. A., & Loizeaux, A. L. (1991). Behavioral and cognitive treatment methods A critical comparative review. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 22, 159-185. Thorndike, E. L. (1898). Animal intelligence An experimental study of the associative processes in animals. Psychological Review Monograph Supplements, 2(8). Thorndike, E. L. (1931). Human learning. New York Century. Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it....

Approachavoidance Conflict

Approach-avoidance conflict, then, has been under detailed investigation for many decades a clear picture is now emerging of its structure, function, and psychological properties. Dysfunction of the mechanisms controlling approach-avoidance conflict appears fundamental to Anxiety Disorders. Detailed neural mechanisms, and sites of action of therapeutic drugs on those neural mechanisms, are now being discovered as substrates of the psychological processes involved (Crestani et al., 1999). Of particular cause for optimism, ethology, behavior analysis, cognitive psychology, psychopharmacology, and behavioral neuroscience appear to be combining to produce a single, coherent, integrated, story in this area.

Treatment of Anxiety Disorders

Second, cognitive therapy is often used to help individuals to replace their anxious thoughts with more balanced, realistic perspectives. For example, an individual with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) who worries whenever his or her spouse is late would be encouraged to consider all of the possible factors that may contribute to the lateness, rather than assuming the worst.

YvXNuclaus Mitochondria

Intensified efforts to scientifically comprehend human semen appear to be consistent with the evolutionary logic of scientific progress. Measuring and evaluating the size, shape, and speed of sperm are a few of a number of scientific techniques that are aimed at constructing the health and the pathologies of sperm. One example of how knowing, naming, and diagnosing semen's pathological forms is produced in interaction with existing beliefs about pathological men is evident in an infertility textbook for medical practitioners. Spark's 1988 book on infertile men includes a chapter encompassing sophisticated techniques for medically managing infertility entitled Coping with the Hopelessly Infertile Man. The use of the terms coping and hopeless indicate the threat to masculinity that is assumed by the lack of fertility. For example, the crossover to popular culture gives us the pejorative vernacular of shooting blanks, which refers to men's inability to deliver, and live ammunition, which...

Suicidal Behavior Among Youth Epidemiology

Cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal, dialectical-behavior, psychodynamic, family systems, and integrationist approaches may be applied to suicidal youth (AACAP, 2001). Cognitive-behavioral treatment is structured and focuses on building interpersonal, coping, and problem-solving skills. Empirical data suggest that cognitive-behavioral strategies that increase coping skills are useful in decreasing suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (Rotheram-Borus, Piancentini, Miller, Graae, & Castro-Blanco, 1994 Rudd & Joiner, 1998). Dialectical-behavior therapy with suicidal adolescents with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder appears to be associated with reduced rates of psychiatric hospitalization (Miller, Rathus, Linehan, Wetzler, & Leigh, 1997). Atime-limited, home-based family intervention has been found to be helpful for those suicidal youth who also are depressed (Harrington et al., 1998). Further, developmental group psychotherapy, which combines problem-solving,...

Evaluation Guidelines Table82

Neuropsychological assessment of higher cognitive functions can be used as an adjunct to the neuro-ophthalmic examination. By combining the disciplines of neurology and cognitive psychology, it is possible to analyze systematically the subcomponents

Psychological Approaches to Blood Pressure Reduction

Individualized Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management Programs Based upon a more comprehensive understanding of the cognitive, physiological, and behavioral responses to stress, recent efforts at developing stress management programs have extended beyond those interventions that primarily operated on the physiological arousal system. In other words, both cognitive and behavioral response patterns to stress have been recently incorporated into the types of stress management programs being used with essential hypertensive patients. Linden and Chambers (1994) referred to this relatively new breed of programs as individualized stress management programs, due to their focus on individual factors involved in the stress response. As such, although one element of an individualized stress management program may be labeled cognitive therapy, the exact nature of the thoughts targeted in this approach depends upon the unique cognitive responses of a given individual. Likewise, although anger...

Mental Spatial Knowledge Processing

Numerous research results in cognitive psychology suggest that human working memory (WM) for spatial knowledge possesses spatio-analogical characteristics. Spatio-analogical representation structures have been described as having a structural correspondence with what they stand for entities and parts of entities in the representation together with their properties and relations correspond to objects, parts of objects, properties and relations in the represented domain (cf. Sloman, 1975). In cognitive science, two types of spatio-analogical mental representations have been identified (visual) mental images and (spatial) mental models.

Cohens andBravers Model

Additionally, future discussion of contextual information, as defined by Cohen, Braver, and colleagues, might benefit from consideration of how this particular construct relates to definitions of context in other fields of research within cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Borrowing an example from the study of conditioning in nonhuman animals, investigators predictably define context as the aspects of the physical setting in which a particular conditioning trial takes place that are immediately observable by the animal (e.g., Fanselow, 2000 Goddard, 2001 Rudy & O'Reilly, 2001). This definition of context is relatively consistent and uniform across studies, facilitating the construct's incorporation into behavioral models and the subsequent generalization of those models to analogous, ecologically valid situations for which the model can generate behavioral predictions (such as the behavior of a recovered drug addict in a physical setting with which drug use is associated e.g.,...

Brief History of Motivated Thinking

This chapter provides an overview of this second generation of research on motivated thinking and discusses some of the larger principles that have emerged from the study of the motivation cognition interface. We consider two general classes of motivational influences the first involves people's desires for reaching certain types of outcomes in their judgments, and the second involves people's desires to use certain types of strategies while forming their judgments. In so doing, we adopt a rather broad focus and discuss several different varieties of motivated thinking. Given space constraints, this broad focus necessitates being selective in the phenomena to be described. We have chosen those programs of research that we believe are representative of the larger literature and are especially relevant not only to the study of reasoning but also to other areas in cognitive psychology.1 After reviewing the separate influences on thinking of outcome-and strategy-based motivations, we...

Design of Representation Structures for Working Memory Representations

However, research results in cognitive psychology and neuroscience indicate that there seems to be no central instance (like a specific representation or subsystem) that controls the overall reasoning process (e.g., Monsell and Driver, 2000 Nobre et al., 2004). Rather, cognitive control seems to be a distributed, emergent phenomenon that evolves from the interaction between all subsystems contributing to the mental reasoning process (cf. Hommel et al., 2004). From a computer science point of view, it has been assumed that corresponding analogical properties of the mental spatial representation structures involved, together with spatial processing mechanisms produce emergent control characteristic in, as well as across the diverse mental subsystems (Engel et al., 2005). Under a more general cognitive modeling perspective, cognitive control processes can be conceived of as being associative. That is, mental stimuli induce further mental activity in a given context which results in an...

Old and New Forms of Racism

Both provide similar models of the new racism, positing that contemporary racial attitudes have become complex, contradictory, and multidimensional. In the ambivalent racism model, pro-Black and anti-Black sentiments are seen to coexist within the person and to reflect different value structures held by the individual. Pro-Black attitudes reflect humanitarian and egalitarian values that emphasize equality and social justice, whereas anti-Black attitudes reflect individualism, the Protestant ethic, hard work, individual achievement, and self-reliance. Similarly, the aversive racism model emphasizes the coexistence of a contradictory complex of attitudes on the one hand, liberal-egalitarian principles of justice and equality, and on the other, a residue set of negative feelings and beliefs about particular groups that are learned early in life and that are difficult to eradicate completely. In both of these accounts, individuals strive to maintain a nonprejudiced image, both to...

Thinking and Reasoning

The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning is the first comprehensive and authoritative handbook covering all the core topics of the field of thinking and reasoning. Written by the foremost experts from cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience, individual chapters summarize basic concepts and findings for a major topic, sketch its history, and give a sense of the directions in which research is currently heading. The volume also includes work related to developmental, social and clinical psychology, philosophy, economics, artificial intelligence, linguistics, education, law, and medicine. Scholars and students in all these fields and others will find this to be a valuable collection.

The Main Principles of the Neo Jacksonian Theory of Mazurkiewicz

Using contemporary metaphors, we can compare the brain to the computer, the hardware is the domain of neurology, whereas the software is the psychical life of psychiatry. During ontogenesis maturation of the brain tissue expands the hardware, which in turn, enables the introduction of additional software, which has to be introduced from outside the system. The psychical structure of an individual depends on genetic material, the biological structure of brain, and on the quality of the software which depends on processes of psychical development as described in terms of psychoanalytic or cognitive psychology theory of development. Unique personal experiences are recorded in the brain like information in a disc however, human beings also have unique hardware and software.

Ritual Abuse of Adolescents

Chemical substance abuse, low self-esteem, negative feelings about school, poor self-concept, low desire to be considered a good person, negative feelings about religion, high tolerance for deviance, negative feelings about the future, low social sanctions against drug use, and feeling blamed (p. 768). Simandl (1997) saw these teens as having an undue fascination with death, torture, and suicide alienation from family and religion drastic change in grades and a compulsive interest in occult material, fantasy role games, and films and videos (all with themes of death, torture, and suicide) (pp. 216-217).

Criteria for Selection of Preferred Treatment

In an open trial with fluoxetine (5-20 mg day). They found that 20 (27 135) of the patients also met the criteria for panic disorder. These patients were much less likely to tolerate the full dose of 20 mg day of fluoxetine (only 48 tolerated 20 mg day) and were more likely to discontinue it altogether. Another study, treating patients with panic disorder and sub-syndromal depression with fluvoxamine and cognitive therapy, found that both depressive symptoms and panic symptoms improved at similar rates.89 They also did not find an association between baseline depression score and remission of panic symptoms.

Rusalovs Theory of Temperament Based on a Functional Systems Approach

In his first writings on temperament Rusalov (1982, 1985, 1986) distinguished, following Nebylitsyn (1976), two basic temperamental traits activity and emotionality. General activity is expressed in the extent of the dynamic-energetic tension in the individual's interaction with the physical and social environment. The basic indicators of activity are tempo, rhythm, speed, intensity, plasticity, and endurance.4 Emotionality refers to formal-dynamic characteristics which comprise sensitivity, impulsivity, and prevailing mood in terms of positive versus negative emotions (Rusalov, 1985, 1986).

Achievement Need

The strong emphasis on cognitive psychology that appeared in the 1970s had a marked effect on achievement motivation research. During this period, Maehr and Nicholls pointed out, researchers became interested in subjects'cognitions about the nature of achievement, their purposes in performing achievement-related acts, and their attributions as to causes of outcomes. Cross-cultural studies, for example, turned up both differences and similarities between national cultures and the way in which their members interpreted success and failure and attributed the antecedents and consequences of success.

Affective Style

Imaging studies typically report data that are averaged over groups of individuals. However, individuals vary in quality and intensity of their reactions to similar emotional stimuli. This is often referred to as affective style (Davidson & Irwin, 1999), presumably reflecting differences in temperament, personality, and psychopathological vulnerability. Electrocortical studies of affective style have suggested that left frontal brain activity is associated with positive emotions and approach behavior, whereas right frontal activation predicts negative emotions and avoidance. Affective style has also been related to emotionally determined differences in amygdala activation. Activity in the amygdala has been shown to correlate with aversive emotional reactions in general and fear in particular (Davidson & Irwin, 1999).

Knowledge Processing

A range of diverse models of spatial knowledge processing has been proposed, both in artificial intelligence (AI) and in cognitive psychology. These models can be classified with respect to their intended cognitive adequacy there are models that aim at explaining cognitive processes in a human's mind, and there are models - although inspired by results from psychology - that primarily aim at providing a technical solution to spatial reasoning problems. Models belonging to both classes will be briefly reviewed in the following.

Psychotherapy

Cognitive-behavioral strategies are directed toward the cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of patients' symptoms. Clinicians should discuss with patients their tendency to employ catastrophic and negative thinking when they experience physiologic reactions and should illustrate the cognitions and behaviors that occur when patients experience unpleasant sensations. To help patients understand their affective responses to such sensations, the clinician can ask them to keep a behavioral log documenting their discomfort, the activities during which they experience discomfort, their emotional reactions, and the way they cope with the sensations. Essentially, patients and clinicians should pinpoint visceral sensations, the thoughts that were elicited by the discomfort, and the context in which the discomfort occurred. This allows a transition from a disease-focused worry to a broader understanding of the psychosocial context in which the discomfort occurred and facilitates...

Theory

According to the cognitive model, negatively biased perceptions adversely affect mood and behavior. For example, an individual suffering from depression may experience automatic thoughts centering on self-criticisms or hopelessness about the self, the world, and the future (the cognitive triad see A. T. Beck et al., 1979). These automatic thoughts may demoralize the patient, leading to inertia and a worsening condition, rather than to improvement through active coping. In addition to being identifiable by their contents, cognitive biases can be addressed and studied in terms of their process. An example is fortune telling, in which the individuals assume they know that the outcome of an event necessarily will be negative. This may lead them not only to be pessimistic, but also to prematurely give up trying to attain the goal. This unfavorable outcome reinforces the negative belief, thus causing a vicious cycle that solidifies the emotional distress.

Forensic Treatment

In a civil damage situation, treatment may consist of insight-oriented or supportive psychotherapy. In addition, special methods such as behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, or biofeedback may be used for pain management or to treat anxiety or depression. The therapist must be aware that testimony may be required in court, and this may at times influence both the mental status of the client and the course of therapy. Often in such cases the therapist may find the legal situation to be at odds with the therapeutic situation. For example, it is often therapeutic for a patient who has been unable to work to return to work as soon as possible. However, this is often inconsistent with the approach being taken by the attorney. In such cases, the therapist has a responsibility to make the patient and the attorney aware of the recommendations, but the final decision as to whether to proceed on those recommendations lies with the patient.

Organization

Because the distance between two nodes in a semantic network is determined by the number of relations one must traverse to reach from one to the other, semantic networks implicitly claim that declarative knowledge is grouped by domain. We use the term domain to refer to both informal areas of knowledge, such as home decorating, eating at a restaurant, and watching sports, and formal disciplines, such as botany, linguistics, and physics. Pieces of knowledge that belong to the same domain are similar in meaning and therefore cluster together functionally. Consistent with this notion, membership in the same domain tends to produce higher similarity ratings, stronger priming effects, and other quantitative behavioral consequences descriptions of these well-known effects can be found in textbooks in cognitive psychology (e.g., Ashcraft, 2002 Reisberg, 2001).

Mental Imagery

Around the turn of the century, mental images were frequently mentioned in controversies concerning cognitive experiences. Whether images were crucial to thinking became a significant issue of contention among both theoretical and empirical psychologists in Germany at that time. John B. Watson, the father of behaviorism, regarded mental images as nothing more than mere ghosts of sensations and of no functional significance whatsoever. Subsequently, experimental psychologists ignored the existence of images and worked almost exclusively with linguistic and behavioral associations. More recently, however, mental imagery has become one of the most significant issues in cognitive psychology.

Childhood Pain

A few recent studies have found that coping strategies could be reliably assessed using questionnaires in school age children. Using a modified version of the CSQ that was developed for adults, Gil and coworkers found that children who engaged in negative thinking and relied passively on strategies such as resting had more adjustment problems. This pattern of coping was associated with greater reductions in school and social activity, more frequent health care contacts, and more depression and anxiety. Children who took an active approach to managing pain by using a variety of cognitive and behavioral coping strategies were more active and required less frequent health care services.

Social Cognition

Workers in the fields of cognitive psychology, psycholin-guistics, and artificial intelligence became preoccupied with higher order cognitive processes and grew interested in explaining complex types of human information processing, such as the comprehension and retention of stories, action sequences, and other thematically coherent stimulus ensembles.

Cancer

Sleep disorders due to cancer and its treatment are under-recognized and the initial step is to identify the problem and analyse its causes. Advice about reducing the frequency of naps, increasing exercise if possible, improving the sleep environment and maintaining regular sleep-wake routines may help. Changes in drug treatment and its timing may promote sleep at night and wakefulness during the day. Provision of specific treatment for drug-induced problems such as the restless legs syndrome due to antidepressants, or for obstructive sleep apnoeas induced by weight gain following glucocorticoid treatment, should be considered. Cognitive behavioural therapy to modify beliefs about cancer may be of help. Negative attitudes such as believing that the cancer will return if the subject does not sleep need to be addressed.

Working Memory

Everyday cognitive tasks, such as language comprehension, reasoning, and decision making, often require one to keep relevant information in mind while processing other information. For example, mental arithmetic requires keeping track of the intermediate results from relevant computations and integrating them to reach the correct answer. A system or a set of processes that supports such maintenance of task-relevant information during the performance of a cognitive task is called working memory. As reflected by the fact that it has been considered the mind's work space, working memory is a central construct in cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience.

Brief History

The psychological study of human problem solving faded into the background after the demise of the Gestalt tradition, and problem solving was investigated only sporadically until 1972, when Allen Newell and Herbert Simon's Human problem solving (Newell & Simon, 1972) sparked a flurry of research on this topic. In contrast to the Gestalt psychologists, Newell and Simon emphasized the step-by-step process of searching for a solution path connecting the initial state to the goal state. Their research goal was to identify general-purpose strategies that humans use to solve a variety of problems. Newell and Simon and their colleagues were heavily influenced by the information-processing approach to cognitive psychology and by work in computer science on artificial intelligence. These influences led them to construct the General Problem Solver (GPS), a computer program that modeled human problem solving (Ernst & Newell, 1 969 Newell & Simon, 1972). A great strength of GPS was its ability to...

Avoidant Personality

Cognitive and interpersonal models of APD have also been developed. In their book Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders (1990), Aaron Beck and Arthur Freeman emphasized the role of cognitive schemas that develop in response to traumatic early social experiences and or biological sensitivities. According to these writers, schemas the cognitive structures that organize experience include beliefs and rules of conduct, which for the avoidant person take such forms as If people get close to me they will reject me and Don't stick your neck out. Although accurate in an historical sense, these schemas are hypothesized to lead to distortions in processing current social information and to the adoption of maladaptive interpersonal strategies. Alden, L. E., Laposa, J. M., Taylor, C. T., & Ryder, A. G. (2002). Avoidant personality disorder Current status and future directions. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16, 1-29. Beck, A. T., & Freeman, A. (1990). Cognitive therapy of Personality

Psychosurgery

Some theories accent the role of the right hemisphere in emotion, and other theories emphasize frontal-cortical-subcortical system connections. Still others have advanced modular models that combine concepts from lateral dominance with ideas about the brain's other axes (dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior). Here, the right hemisphere's putative role in emotion is modified by a valence hypothesis The right hemisphere controls negative emotions, while the left controls positive emotions. In more recent years, psychosurgery has been used in the treatment of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and in refractory depression.

Shamanism

From the shaman's perspective, the therapeutic factors are spiritual or psychic as much as, or more than, psychological or physical. Although research and meta-analysis evidence for some psi phenomena appear to be becoming more solid, studies of psi in shamans have been inconclusive, and most researchers decide the matter according to their personal belief systems. Whatever one's belief, however, it is clear that shamanism represents an extraordinarily widespread and enduring tradition of psychological and medical practices that have been used across centuries and cultures.

Mindfulness

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is the result of integration of Kabat-Zinn's MBSR with the cognitive theory of depression and anxiety (Segal et al., 2002). The effectiveness of this therapy in the prevention of relapse and recurrence in major depression was demonstrated (Teasedale et al., 2000). Modifications of this method Mindfulness-Based Therapeutic Interventions were also applied in psychiatric practice (O'Haver Day and Horton-Deutsch, 2004a), which was illustrated by case studies (O'Haver Day and Horton-Deutsch, 2004b). Mindfulness acceptance therapy has been shown to be useful in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (Roemer and Orsillo, 2002), and mindfulness-based therapy has been used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Schwartz, 1996).

Pharmacotherapy

Whiteley Index, Illness Attitude Scale), and a measure of functional status (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey SF-36 ) before treatment with fluvoxamine, which was increased gradually to 300 mg day. In this study, 4 (22 ) of 18 patients were excluded during the placebo run-in phase either because of marked improvement or noncompliance with the medication or study visits. Three patients discontinued treatment before 6 weeks. Eight (73 ) of 11 patients who completed the minimum treatment of at least 6 weeks responded to treatment and 8 (57 ) of 14 patients given active fluvoxamine responded. Even though these results suggest that fluvoxamine may be effective for treating hypochondriasis, the greater than 25 dropout rate in active treatment suggests that pharmaco-therapy may be less acceptable to patients than psychotherapy. This suggestion is supported by a 4.6 dropout rate reported by Clark et al. (1998) in their study of cognitive therapy and behavioral stress...

Behaviorism Today

But behaviorism as a philosophy and an historical movement remains an object of interest to psychologists, philosophers, and historians. An important unresolved question is the current status of behaviorism. Although formal and informal behaviorism are clearly gone and radical behaviorism's importance is waning, it is clear that there has been no return to prebehavioristic mentalism. Cognitive psychologists still aim for the prediction and control of behavior, reject introspection for objective methods, have relatively little to say about consciousness, and study both humans and animals (as well as computers). In other words, they still could subscribe to Watson's basic creed, while rejecting his muscle-twitchism as did Tolman and the informal behaviorists. It is possible, then, that cognitive psychology is a new form of behaviorism with historical roots in Tolman's purposive behaviorism and Hull's fascination with learning machines. Or, if one insists that cognitive science's...

Reliability

The internal consistency of the BDI-II has repeatedly been described as high with a coefficient alpha of approximately .90 in adolescent (Steer, Kumar, Ranieri, & Beck, 1998) and adult psychiatric patients (Steer, Ball, Ranieri, & Beck, 1997) and college students (Dozois, Dobson, & Ahnberg, 1998 Osman, Downs, Barrios, Kopper, Gutierrez, & Chiros, 1997 Steer & Clark, 1997). Beck, Steer, and Brown (1996) reported that the 1-week test-retest reliability was also high (r .93) for 26 outpatients who completed the BDI-II before their first and second cognitive therapy sessions.

Drug Rehabilitation

Relapse Prevention Therapy uses a variety of cognitive-behavioral strategies to facilitate abstinence and reduce the risk of a return to drug use. Relapse Prevention Therapy's approach recognizes that many patients will resume drug use after treatment and that most patients will require multiple treatment episodes before they are able to achieve sustained abstinence. Thus, a central element of this approach is helping patients anticipate and prepare for situations that may trigger a relapse.

Associationism

In the twentieth century, association of ideas transmuted into association of stimulus and response under the influence of behaviorism. The laws of association became the laws of learning the law of frequency became the gradually rising learning curve the law of similarity became the generalization gradient and contiguity of ideas became the contiguity of unconditioned and conditioned stimuli. More recently, eighteenth-century concepts have revived with cognitive psychology, which views memory as an associative network of ideas (e.g., in J. R. .Anderson and G. H. Bower's Human Associative Memory) embedded in a complex information-processing system, rather like the old mental faculties.

Managing ASP

Antisocial patients who seek help can be evaluated on an outpatient basis. A careful psychiatric interview supplemented by information from informants is the best way to assess ASP, because there are no diagnostic tests. Cognitive therapy has recently been used to treat ASP and involves helping patients to recognize and correct situations in which their distorted beliefs and attitudes interfere with their functioning. Antisocial patients can be very difficult to treat because they typically blame others for their problems, have a low tolerance for frustration, are impulsive, and rarely form trusting relationships.

Obsessions

Obsessions are described in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as recurrent intrusive thoughts, impulses, or images that produce anxiety or discomfort. Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) usually try to suppress or neutralize obsessions with other thoughts or actions. Typical themes for obsessions are harming, sexuality, contamination, concerns with disease, religion, superstition, or otherwise neutral thoughts ( What if I cannot stop thinking about my breathing ). Normally the individuals with OCD know that the obsessions originate in their own mind and are not coming from the outside. More recent theories for the development of obsessional problems have suggested information processing biases and deficits with respect to decision making, failures of inhibition, and memory (for a detailed review see Steketee, Frost, Rheaume, & Wilhelm, 1998). For example, Enright and Beech (1993)...

Tension Headache

With tension headache, the biofeedback approach used is electromyographic (EMG muscle tension) feedback from the forehead, neck, and or shoulders. For relaxation therapy alone, successful treatment outcomes generally range from 40 to 55 for EMG biofeedback alone, this value ranges from 50 to 60 , and for cognitive therapy, from 60 to 80 . When EMG biofeedback and relaxation are combined, the average number of treatment successes improves from about 50 to about 75 when relaxation and cognitive therapy are combined, success increases from 40 to 65 .

Dysthymic Disorder

Various forms of psychotherapy are also used to treat Dysthymic Disorder. Although there are few controlled trials, there is preliminary evidence suggesting that several forms of psychotherapy, including cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy, may also be effective in treating dys-thymia and double depression (Markowitz, 1995). Moreover, a recent study indicates that in double depression the combination of medication and psychotherapy is more effective than either pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy alone (Keller et al., 2000).

Selective Attention

Within the field of cognitive psychology, selective attention refers to the differential processing of simultaneous sources of information. Perhaps the best-known real-life example of selective attention is one in which a person is capable of listening to a single voice in a room full of people talking at the same time, while apparently being oblivious to all other conversations. This instance of auditory selective attention was described by Cherry (1953) when he noted that while a person may have appeared to be selectively attending to only his or her own conversation while ignoring all other voices, that person sometimes noticed important stimuli, such as his or her own name. Cherry referred to this so-called cocktail-party phenomenon when he framed many of the principle questions about selective attention.

Applications

Use of automatic thoughts in psychology center on changing belief systems through psychotherapy. In cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies, the primary focus is on changing the client's distorted or dysfunctional belief systems. Client's belief systems are explored and accessed. Albert Ellis outlines 12 irrational beliefs (Criddle, 1975), and Beck outlines primarily six cognitive distortions or distorted thoughts belief processes (Beck & Weishaar, 1989a, 1989b). Others have added to and modified irrational beliefs and cognitive distortions (McMullin, 1986). Core beliefs can be accessed by having people monitor their own spontaneous self-statements or automatic thoughts. These are then challenged and changed. Therapy problems can be resolved by changing one's views of the problems via automatic thoughts, a kind of paradigmatic shift in thinking, known in psychotherapy jargon as re-framing. Beck, A., & Weishaar, M. (1989a). Cognitive therapy. In A. Freeman, K. J. Simon, L. E....

Cognitive Deficits

In support of more regionally localized, domain-specific cognitive abnormalities is the observation that the pattern of deficits seen in patients with major depression shares many features with those seen in subcortical disorders typified by Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These disorders selectively affect concentration, working memory, psychomotor speed, planning, strategic searching, and flexibility of goal-directed mental activity associated with frontal-striatal pathway dysfunction (Rogers et al., 1987 Starkstein et al., 1990b). Selective deficits on tasks targeting reward and motivation have also been demonstrated. In these paradigms, depressed patients fail to use negative feedback as a motivational stimulus to improve subsequent performance, implicating orbital frontal and ventral striatal pathways previously identified in both primate electrophysiology studies and with focal lesions in humans (Elliott et al., 1997b Tremblay and Shultz, 1999). State-trait factors...

Capsule History

Thinking and reasoning, long the academic province of philosophy, have over the past century emerged as core topics of empirical investigation and theoretical analysis in the modern fields known as cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience. Before psychology was founded, the The modern conception of thinking as computation became prominent in the 1970s. In their classic treatment of human problem solving, Allen Newell and Herbert Simon (1972) showed that the computational analysis of thinking (anticipated by Alan Turing, the father of computer science) could yield important empirical and theoretical results. Like a program running on a digital computer, a person thinking through a problem can be viewed as taking an input that represents initial conditions and a goal, and applying a sequence of operations to reduce the difference between the initial conditions and the goal. The work of Newell and Simon established computer simulation as a standard method for...

Migraine Headache

For patients with pure migraine headache, hand surface temperature (or thermal) is the biofeedback modality of choice, and it leads to clinically significant improvement in 40 to 60 of patients. Cognitive therapy by itself achieves about 50 success. A systematic course of relaxation training seems to help when added to thermal biofeedback (increasing success from about 40 to 55 ), but cognitive therapy added to the thermal biofeedback and relaxation does not improve outcome on a group basis. Relaxation training alone achieves success in from 30 to 50 of patients, and adding thermal biofeedback boosts that success (from about 30 to 55 ).

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