Direct changes in agonist motor units

1 Reduced number of motor units

2 Reduced firing rates of motor units

3 Muscle atrophy

4 Altered time-dependent properties of muscle contraction

Active restraint of agonist activation

1 Spasticity

2 Inappropriate and un graded co-contraction of agonist and antagonist

3 Altered multi-joint co-ordination

4 Reduced reciprocal inhibition

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