neural repair strategies (Dobkin, 2000a). Any trial of a repair intervention ought to include a physical therapy approach that is relevant to a potential treatment goal of the repair intervention. An RCT ought to assign the experimental and control arms to the same rehabilitation therapies, given the gains that can be made at any time after onset of walking disability in many patients. Finding a means to encourage and assist locomotor training may be a critical element for driving activity-dependent plasticity through intrinsic mechanisms such as long-term potentiation, release of neurotrophins, and dendritic sprouting (Chapters 4, 7, and 20 of Volume I) (Dobkin and Havton, 2004).

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