Future directions for hand grasp neuroprostheses

Future developments and improvements in tetraplegic hand grasp systems include increasing the number of channels, use of implantable controllers (Johnson et al., 1999), closed loop feedback with improved sensor technology, proximal muscle control, control of the prontation/supination axis, addition of finger intrinsics to improve finger extension (Lauer et al., 1999), bilateral implementation, and myoelectric EMG control. Ultimately, technologies such as the development of injectable electrodes and cortical control of movement may impact as well on these devices. The overall objective of these developments is to simplify the control functions by making them more natural, provide enhanced movement of the hand and stronger control of the proximal musculature, and reduce the donning process.

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