area; Cing: cingulate motor cortex; Subcort: subcortical nodes; Cereb: cerebellum.
exceeded that of healthy subjects. The evoked activity for contraction of the quadriceps, however, was similar to that of control subjects (Fig. 3.1(b)), with the exception of recruitment of the bilateral secondary sensory (SII) area and the trunk representation within M1S1. In this subject, a portion of the CPG network is likely damaged, but residual cortical control and practice led to useful motor control for gait.
In human subjects who are healthy or have had a stroke or incomplete SCI, functional neuroimaging and other neurophysiological studies of walking reveal considerable contributions from supraspinal nodes of the distributed locomotor network for effective bipedal walking (Dobkin, 2000b; Miyai et al., 2001; Dobkin, 2003c; Nielsen, 2003; Grasso et al., 2004). By better defining supraspinal components and the means to engage them by voluntary action, visuoperception, planning, mechanisms for declarative and procedural learning, and through drugs and electrical stimulation procedures, a broad range of strategies for gait training suggest themselves for further evaluation.
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