symptomatic urinary tract infections has been seen. Continence has been achieved in more than 85% of implant recipients, probably due to the concurrent posterior rhizotomy (Brindley, 1995). Improved health of the upper urinary tracts has been demonstrated by a decreased incidence of bladder trabecu-lation and hydronephrosis (Peckham et al., 2001).

The sacral anterior root stimulators have also been shown to improve bowel care (i.e., increased defecation, reduced constipation). About half of implant recipients can use the stimulator to defecate. Even in those patients that cannot, the amount of time spent in bowel evacuation has been shown to be considerably less (MacDonagh et al., 1990). Approximately 60% of men can also produce penile erection with the device.

Long-term follow-up from Europe has documented the safety of this implant device and procedure. Economic analysis of the long-term cost savings due to the decreased use of catheters, antibiotics, medical resources etc. indicate that the implant would pay for itself within 5-7 years (Creasey et al., 2000).

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