Functional electrical stimulation (FES), also known as functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) or neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is the method of applying safe levels of electric current to activate the damaged or disabled neuromuscular system. The terms FES, FNS, and NMES are often used interchangeably, although NMES typically refers to using surface electrodes. The term neuroprosthe-sis refers to devices that use electrical stimulation to activate the nervous system in order to perform a specific functional task. This chapter will examine both the therapeutic aspects of FES as well as the direct functional applications as it is applied to individuals with neurologic injury.
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