References

The Big Heart Disease Lie

Natural Treatment to Reverse Cardiovascular Disease

Get Instant Access

Ahmed, S., Mayo, N.E., Higgins, J., Salbach, N.M., Finch, L. and Wood-Dauphinee, S. (2003). The stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement (STREAM): a comparison with other measures used to evaluate effects of stroke and rehabilitation. Phys Ther, 83, 617-630.

Beaton, D.E., Bombardier, C., Katz, J.N. and Wright, J.G. (2001). A taxonomy for responsiveness. J Clin Epidemiol, 54, 1207-1217.

Berg, K., Wood-Dauphinee, S., Williams, J.I. and Gayton, D. (1989). Measuring balance in the elderly: preliminary development of an instrument. Physiother Can, 41, 304-311.

Berg, K., Maki, B., Williams, J.I., Holliday, P. and Wood-Dauphinee, S. (1992a). A comparison of clinical and laboratory measures of postural balance in an elderly population. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 73, 1073-1080.

Berg, K., Wood-Dauphinee, S., Williams, J.I. and Maki, B. (1992b). Measuring balance in the elderly: validation of an instrument. Can J Public Health, 83(Suppl. 2), S7-S11.

Berg, K., Wood-Dauphinee, S. and Williams, J.I. (1995). The balance scale: reliability assessment with elderly residents and patients with acute stroke. Scand J Rehabil Med, 27, 27-36.

Bjorner, J.B. and Ware, J.E. (1998). Using modern psychometric methods to measure health outcomes. Med Outcome Trust Monit, 3, 12-16.

Bohannon, R.W. (1986). Strength of lower limb related to gait velocity and cadence in stroke patients. Physiother Can, 38, 204-210.

Bohannon, R.W. and Walsh, S. (1992). Nature, reliability, and predictive value of muscle performance measures in patients with hemiparesis following stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 73, 721-725.

Brandstater, M.E., de Bruin, H., Gowland, C. and Clark, B.M. (1983). Hemiplegie gait: analysis of temporal variables. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 64, 583-587.

Brook, R.H., Williams, K.N. and Avery, A.D. (1976). Quality assurance today and tomorrow: forecast for the future. Ann Intern Med, 85, 809-817.

Calautti, C. and Baron, J.C. (2003). Functional neuroimaging studies of motor recovery after stroke in adults. Stroke, 34, 1553-1566.

Calautti, C., Leroy, F., Guincestre, J.Y. and Baron, J.C. (2001). Dynamics of motor network overactivation after striatocap-sular stroke: a longitudinal PET study using a fixed-performance paradigm. Stroke, 32, 2534-2542.

Cardol, M., Beelen, A., van den Bos, G.A., de Jong, B.A., de Grout, I.J. and de Haan, R.J. (2002). Responsiveness of the impact on participation and autonomy questionnaire. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 83, 1524-1529.

Carey, J.R., Kimberly, T.J., Lewis, S.M., Auerbach, E.J., Dorsey, L., Runqist, P. and Ugurbil, K. (2002). Analysis of fMRI and finger tracking training in subjects with chronic stroke. Brain, 125, 773-788.

Carroll, T.J., Riek, S. and Carson, R.G. (2001). Reliability of the input-output properties of the cortico-spinal pathway obtained from transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation. J Neurosci Method, 112, 193-202.

Cella, D., Lai, J. and Item Bank Investigators. (2004). Core item banking programs: past, present and future. Qual Life News Lett, Fall, Sage Publications, 5-8.

Cleary, P.D. (1996). Future directions of quality of life research. Qual Life Med Rehabil, 83, 1524-1529.

Cohen, J. (1960). Coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Measure, 20, 37-46.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edn., Laurence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.

Collins, D. (2003). Pretesting survey instruments: an overview of cognitive methods. Qual Life Res, 12, 229-238.

Comeau, F., Chapdelaine, S., McFadyen, B.J., Malouin, F., Lamontagne, A., Galiana, L., Laurendeau, D., Richards, C.L. and Fung, J. (2003). Development of increasingly complex virtual environment for locomotor training following stroke. Second International Workshop on Virtual Rehabilitation, Piscataway, NJ, September.

Cramer, S.C., Nelles, G., Benson, R.R., Kaplan, J.D., Parker, R.A., Kwong, K.K., Kennedy, D.N., Finklestein, S.P. and Rosen, B.R. (1997). A functional MRI study of subjects recovered from hemiparesis stroke. Stroke, 28, 2518-2527.

Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.

Cronbach, L.J. (1957). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. Am Psychol, 12, 671-684.

Crosby, R.D., Kolotkin, R.L. and Williams, G.R. (2003). Defining clinically meaningful change in health-related quality of life. J Clin Epidemiol, 56, 395-407.

Daley, K., Mayo, N., Danys, I., Cabot, R. and Wood-Dauphinee, S. (1997). The stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement (STREAM). Physiother Can, 49, 269-276.

Daley, K., Mayo, N. and Wood-Dauphinee, S. (1999). Testing the reliability of the stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement (STREAM). Phys Ther, 79, 9-23.

De Bruin, A.F., Diederiks, J.P.M., De Witte, L.P., Stevens, F.C.J. and Philipsen, H. (1997). Assessing the responsiveness of a functional status measure: the sickness impact profile versus the SIP68. J Clin Epidemiol, 50, 529-540.

Dean, C.M., Richards, C.L. and Malouin, F. (2000). Task-related circuit training improves performance of locomotor tasks in chronic stroke: a randomized, controlled pilot trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 81, 409-417.

Dean, C.M., Richards, C.L. and Malouin, F. (2001). Walking speed over 10 metres overestimates locomotor capacity after stroke. Clin Rehabil, 15, 415-421.

Desrosiers, J., Malouin, F., Bourbonnais, D., Richards, C.L., Rochette, A. and Bravo, G. (2003). Arm and leg impairments and disabilities after stroke rehabilitation: relation to handicap. Clin Rehabil, 17, 666-673.

Devanne, H., Lavoie, B.A. and Capaday, C. (1997). Input-output properties and gain changes in the human corticospinal pathway. Exp Brain Res, 114, 329-338.

Dietz, V, Quintern, J. and Berger, W. (1981). Electrophysiological studies of gait spasticity and rigidity: evidence that mechanical properties of muscles contribute to hypertonia. Brain, 104, 431-439.

Dion, L., Malouin, F., Mcfadyen, B. and Richards, C.L. (2003). Assessing mobility and locomotor coordination after stroke with the rise-to-walk task. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 17, 83-92.

Duncan, P., Studenski, S., Richards, L., Gollub, S., Lai, S.M., Reker, D., Perera, S., Yates, J., Koch, V., Regler, S. and Johnson, D. (2003). Randomized clinical trial of therapeutic exercise in sub-acute stroke. Stroke, 34, 2173-2180.

Duncan, P.W., Wallace, D., Lai, S.M., Johnson, D., Embretson, S. and Laster, L.J. (1999). The stroke impact scale version 2.0. Evaluation of reliability, validity and sensitivity to change. Stroke, 30, 2131-2140.

Engardt, M. and Olsson, E. (1992). Body weight-bearing while rising and sitting down in patients with stroke. Scand J Rehabil Med, 24, 67-74.

Evans, M.D., Goldie, P.A. and Hill, K.D. (1997). Systematic and random error in repeated measurements of temporal and distance parameters of gait after stroke. Phys Ther, 78, 725-729.

Finch, E., Brooks, D., Stratford, P. and Mayo, N. (2002). Physical Rehabilitation Outcome Measures. A Guide to Enhanced Clinical Decision Making, 2nd edn., B.C. Decker Inc., Hamilton, Ontario.

Fisher, W.P. (1993). Measurement-related problems in functional assessment. Am J Occup Ther, 47, 331-338.

Foltys, H., Krings, T., Meister, I.G., Sparing, R., Boroojerdi, B., Thron, A. and Topper, R. (2003). Motor representation in patients rapidly recovering after stroke: a functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Clin Neurophysiol, 114, 2404-2415.

Fougeyrollas, P. and Noreau, L. (2001). Life Habits Measure -Shortened Version (LIFE-H 3.0). CQCIDIH, Lac St-Charles, Quebec, Canada.

Fougeyrollas, P., Noreau, L., Bergeron, H., Cloutier, R., Dion, S.A. and St-Michel, G. (1998). Social consequences of long term impairments and disabilities: conceptual approach and assessment of handicap. Int J Rehabil Res, 21, 127-141.

Fugl-Meyer, A.R., Jaaskp, L., Leyman, I., Olsson, S. and Steglind, S. (1975). The post-stroke hemiplegia patient. I. A method for evaluation of physical performance. Scand J Rehabil Med,7, 13-31.

Gerin-Lajoie, M., McFadyen, B.J., Richards, C.L. and Vallis, L. (2002). Walking around static and mobile upright obstacles. World Congress of Biomechanics, Calgary, August.

Guyatt, G., Walter, S. and Norman, G. (1987). Measuring change over time: assessing the usefulness of evaluative instruments. J Chron Dis, 40, 171-178.

Guyatt, G.H., Osoba, D., Wu, A., Wyrwich, K. and Norman, G.R. (2002). Methods to explain the clinical significance of health status measures. Mayo Clinic Proc, 77, 371-383.

Hambleton, R.K. and Jones, R.W. (1993.) Comparison of classical test theory and item response theory and their applications to test development. Educ Measure Issue Pract, 12, 38-47.

Hambleton, R.K., Swaminathan, H. and Rogers, H.J. (1991). Fundamentals of Item Response Theory., Sage, Newbury Park, NJ.

Hays, R.D. (1998). Item response theory models. In: Quality of Life Assessment in Clinical Trials (eds Staquet, M.J., Hays, R.D. and Fayers, P.M.), Oxford University Press, Oxford., pp. 183-190.

Hays, R.D. and Hadorn, D. (1992). Responsiveness to change: an aspect of validity not a separate dimension. Qual Life Res, 1, 73-75.

Hendricks, H.T., Zwarts, M.J., Plat, E.F. and van Limbeek, J. (2002). Systematic review for the early prediction of motor and functional outcome after stroke by using motor-evoked potentials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 83, 1303-1308.

Holden, M.K., Gill, K.M., Magliozzi, M.R., Nathan, J. and Piehl-Baker, L. (1984). Clinical gait assessment in the neurologically impaired. Reliability and meaningfulness. Phys Ther, 64, 35-40.

Hsu, A.-L., Tang, P.-F. and Jan, M.-H. (2003). Analysis of impairments influencing gait velocity and asymmetry of hemi-plegic patients after mild to moderate stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 84, 1185-1193.

Husted, J.A., Cook, R.J., Farewell, V.T. and Gladman, D.D. (2000). Methods for assessing responsiveness: a critical review and recommendations. J Clin Epidemiol, 53, 459-468.

Iyer, L.Y, Haley, S., Watkins, M.P. and Dumas, H.M. (2003). Establishing minimal clinically important difference scores on the pediatric evaluation of disability inventory for inpatient rehabilitation. Phys Ther, 83, 888-898.

Jaeschke, R., Singer, J. and Guyatt, G.D. (1989). Measurement of health status: ascertaining the minimal clinically important difference. Control Clin Trial, 10, 407-415.

Jorgensen, H.S., Nakayama, H., Raaschou, H.O. and Olsen, T.S. (1995). Recovery of walking function in stroke patients. The Copenhagen Stroke Study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 76, 27-32.

Juniper, E.F., Guyatt, G.H. and Jaeschke, R. (1996). How to develop and validate a new health-related quality of life instrument. In: Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in Clinical Trials (ed. Spilker, B.), Lippencott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA., pp. 49-56.

Kirshner, B. and Guyatt, G. (1985). A methodological framework for assessing health indices. J Chron Dis, 38, 27-36.

Knutsson, E. and Richards, C.L. (1979). Different types of disturbed motor control in gait of hemiparetic patients. Brain, 102, 405-430.

Lamontagne, A., Malouin, F. and Richards, C.L. (2000a). Contribution of passive stiffness to ankle plantarflexor moment during gait after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 81, 351-358.

Lamontagne, A., Richards, C.L. and Malouin, F. (2000b). Coactivation during gait as an adaptive behavior after stroke. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 10, 407-415.

Lamontagne, A., Malouin, F. and Richards, C.L. (2001). Locomotor task-specific measure of spasticity of plan-tarflexor muscles after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 82, 1696-1704.

Lamontagne, A., Malouin, F., Richards, C.L. and Dumas, F. (2002). Mechanisms of disturbed motor control in ankle weakness during gait after stroke. Gait Posture, 15, 244-255.

Lerner-Frankiel, M.B., Vargus, S., Brown, M.B., et al. (1986). Functional community ambulation: What are your criteria? Clin Manage, 6, 12-15.

Liepert, J. (2003). TMS in stroke. In: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

(eds Paulus, W., Tergau, F., Rothwell, J.C., Ziemann, U. and Hallett, M.), Elsevier Science. Clin Neurophysiol, 56(Suppl.), S368-S380.

Liepert, J., Bauder, H., Miltmer, H.R., Taub, E. and Weiller, C. (2000). Treatment-induced cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Stroke, 31, 1210-1216.

Likert, R.A. (1952). A technique for the development of attitudes. Educ Psychol Measure, 12, 313-315.

Loubinoux, I., Carel, C., Pariente, J., deChaumont, S., Albucher, J.F., Marque, P., Manelfe, C. and Chollet, F. (2003). Correlation between cerebral reorganization and motor recovery after subcortical infarcts. Neuroimage, 20, 2126-2180.

Lydick, E.G. and Epstein, R.S. (1993). Interpretation of quality of life changes. Qual Life Res, 2, 221-226.

Macko, R.F., DeSouza, C.A., Tretter, L.D., Silver, K.H., Smith, G.V., Anderson, P.A., Tomoyasu, N., Gorman, P. and Dengel, D.R. (1997). Treadmill aerobic exercise training reduces the energy expenditure and cardiovascular demands of hemiparetic gait in chronic stroke patients. A preliminary report. Stroke, 28, 326-330.

Mahoney, F.I. and Barthel, D.W. (1954). Rehabilitation of the hemiplegic patient: a clinical evaluation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 35, 359-362.

Malouin, F. and Richards, C.L. (2005). Assessment and training of locomotor function after stroke: evolving concepts. In: Science-Based Rehabilitation: Theory into Practice (eds Refshauge, K., Ada, L. and Ellis, E.), Butterworth-Heinemann, Sydney, Australia, pp. 185-222.

Malouin, F., McFadyen, B., Dion, L. and Richards, C.L. (2003). A fluidity scale for evaluating the motor strategy of the rise-to-walk task after stroke. Clin Rehabil, 17, 674-685.

Malouin, F., Belleville, S., Desrosiers, J., Doyon, J. and Richards, C.L. (2004a). Working memory and mental practice after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 85, 177-183.

Malouin, F., Richards, C.L., Belleville, S., Desrosiers, J. and Doyon, J. (2004b). Training mobility tasks after stroke with combined physical and mental practice: a feasibility study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 18, 66-75.

Marshall, R.S., Perera, G.M., Lazar, R.M., Krakauer, J.W., Costantine, R.C. and DeLaPaz, R.L. (2000). Evolution of cortical activation during recovery from corticospinal tract infarction. Stroke, 31, 656-661.

McFadyen, B.J. and Winter, D.A. (1991). Anticipatory locomotor adjustments during obstructed walking. Neurosci Res Commun, 9, 37-44.

McFadyen, B.J., Malouin, F., Fung, J., Comeau, F., Chapdelaine, S., Beaudoin, C., Lamontagne, A., Laurendeau, D. and Richards, C.L. (2004). Development of Complex Virtual

Environments for Locomotor Training Following Stroke. International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology, Boston, USA.

McHorney, C.A. (1997). Generic health measurement: past accomplishments and a measurement paradigm for the 21st century. Ann Intern Med, 15, 743-750. Moffet, H., Richards, C.L. and Malouin, F. (1993a). Load-carrying during stair ascent: a new functional test. Gait Posture, 1, 35-44.

Moffet, H., Richards, C.L., Malouin, F. and Bravo, G. (1993b). Impact of knee extensor strength deficits on stair ascent performance in patients after medial meniscectomy. Scand JRehabil Med, 25, 63-71. Nakamura, R.A., Handa, T., Watanabe, S. and Morohashi, I. (1988). Walking cycle after stroke. Tohoku J Exp Med, 154, 241-244.

Nelles, G., Jentzen, W., Jueptner, M., Muller, S. and Diener, H.C. (2002). Arm training induced brain plasticity in stroke studied with serial positron emission tomography. Neuroimage, 13, 1146-1154.

Nilsson, L., Carlsson, J., Danielsson, A., Fugl-Meyer, A., Hellstrom, K., Kristensen, L., Sjolund, B., Sunnerhagen, K.S. and Grimby, G. (2001). Walking training of patients with hemiparesis at an early stage after stroke: a comparison of walking training on a treadmill with body weight support and walking training on the ground. Clin Rehabil, 15, 515.

Norman, G.R., Sridhar, F.G., Guyatt, G.H. and Walter, S.D. (2001). Relation of distribution- and anchor-based approaches in interpretation of changes in health-related quality of life. Med Care, 39, 1039-1047. Norman, G.R., Sloan, J.A. and Wyrwich, K.W. (2003). Interpretation of changes in health-related quality of life: the remarkable universality of half a standard deviation. Med Care, 41, 582-592. Norton, B.J., Bomze, H.A., Sahrmann, S.A., et al. (1975). Correlation between gait speed and spasticity at the knee. Phys Ther, 55, 355-359. Olney, S., Nymark, J., Zee, B., Martin, C. and McNamara, P. (1997). Effects of computer-assisted gait training (BioTRAC) on early stroke - a randomised clinical trial. North American Stroke Meeting, Montreal. Neurol Rev, 5, 38. Olney, S.J. and Richards, C.L. (1996). Hemiplegic gait following stroke. Part I. Characteristics. Gait Posture, 4, 136-148. Olney, S.J., Griffin, M.P., Monga, T.N. and McBride, I.D. (1991). Work and power in gait of stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 72, 309-314. Olney, S.J., Griffen, M.P. and McBride, I.D. (1994). Temporal, kinematic and kinetic variables related to gait speed in sub jects with hemiplegia: a regression approach. Phys Ther, 74, 872-885.

Pariente, J., Loubinoux, I., Carel, C., Albucher, J.F., Leger, A., Manelfe, C., Rascol, O. and Chollet, F. (2001). Fluoxetine modulates motor performance and cerebral activation of patients recovering from stroke. Ann Neurol, 50, 718-729.

Perron, M., Malouin, F. and Moffet, H. (2003). Assessing locomotor recovery after total hip arthroplasty with the timed stair test. Clin Rehabil, 17, 780-786.

Perry, J., Garrett, M., Gronley, J.K. and Mulroy, S.J. (1995). Classification of walking handicap in the stroke population. Stroke, 26, 982-989.

Podsiadlo, D. and Richardson, S. (1991). The timed "up an go". A test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc, 39, 142-149.

Poissant, L., Mayo, N., Wood-Dauphinee, S. and Clarke, A. (2003). The development and preliminary validation of the preference-based stroke index (PBS). Health Qual Life Outcome, 1, 43.

Portney, L.G. and Watkins, M.P. (2000). Foundations of Clinical Research: Applications to Practice, 2nd edn., Prentice Hall Health, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Potempa, K., Lopez, M., Braun, L.T., Szidon, J.P., Fogg, L. and Tincknell, T. (1995). Physiological outcomes of aerobic exercise training in hemiparetic stroke patients. Stroke, 26, 101-105.

Redelmeier, DA, Guyatt, G.H. and Goldstein, R.S. (1996). Assessing the minimal important difference in symptoms: a comparison of two techniques. J Clin Epidemiol, 49, 1215-1219.

Redelmeier, D.A., Bayoumi, A.M., Goldstein, R.S. and Guyatt, G.H. (1997). Interpreting small differences in functional status: the six minute walk test in chronic lung disease patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 155, 1278-1283.

Revicki, D.A. and Cella, D.F. (1997). Health status assessment for the twenty-first century: item response theory, item banking and computer testing. Qual Life Res, 6, 595-600.

Richards, C.L. (1985). EMG activity level comparisons in quadriceps and hamstrings in five dynamic activities. In: Biomechanics IX-A (eds Winter, D., Wells, R., Norman, R., Hayes, K. and Patla, A.), Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IL, pp. 313-317.

Richards, C.L., Malouin, F., Durand, A. and Moffet, H. (1989). Muscle activation level comparisons for determining functional demands of locomotor tasks. Semin Orthoped, 4, 120-129.

Richards, C.L., Malouin, F., Dumas, F. and Wood-Dauphinee, S. (1992). The relationship of gait speed to clinical measures of function and muscle activations during recovery post-stroke.

In: Proceedings of NACOBII: The Second North American Congress on Biomechanics (eds Draganich, L., Wells, R. and Bechtold, J.), Chicago, pp. 299-302.

Richards, C.L., Malouin, F., Dumas, F. and Tardif, D. (1995). Gait velocity as an outcome measure of locomotor recovery after stroke. In: Gait Analysis: Theory and Applications (eds Craik, R.L. and Oatis, C.), Mosby, St-Louis, pp. 355-364.

Richards, C.L., Malouin, F., Dumas, F. and Lamontagne, A.

(1998). Recovery of ankle and hip power during walking after stroke. Can JRehabil, 11, 271-272.

Richards, C.L., Malouin, F. and Dean, C. (1999). Assessment and rehabilitation. Clin Geriatric Med, 15, 833-855.

Richards, C.L., Malouin, F., Bravo, G., Dumas, F. and Wood-Dauphinee, S. (2004). The role of technology in task-oriented training in persons with sub-acute stroke: a randomized controlled trail. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 18, 199-211.

Robinett, C.S. and Vondran, M.A. (1988). Functional ambulation velocity and distance requirements in rural and urban communities. A clinical report. Phys Ther, 68, 1371-1373.

Said, C.M., Goldie, PA., Patla, A.E., Sparrow, W.A. and Martin, K.E.

(1999). Obstacle crossing in subjects with stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 80, 1054-1059.

Said, C.M., Goldie, P.A., Patla, A.E. and Sparrow, W.A. (2001). Effect of stroke on step characteristics of obstacle crossing. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 82, 1712-1719.

Salbach, N.M., Mayo, N.E., Higgins, J., Ahmed, S., Finch, L.E. and Richards, C.L. (2001). Responsiveness and predictability of gait speed and other disability measures in acute stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 82, 1204-1212.

Salbach, N.M., Mayo, N.E., Wood-Dauphinee, S., Hanley, J.A., Richards, C.L. and Côté R. (2004). A mobility intervention enhances walking competency in the first year post-stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil, 5, 509-519.

Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust (2002). Assessing health status and quality of life instruments: attributes and review criteria. Qual Life Res, 11, 193-205.

Shumway-Cook, A. and Woollacott, M. (1995). Motor Control: Theory and Practical Applications., Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Shumway-Cook, A., Baldwin, M., Polissar, N.L. and Gruber, W. (1997). Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults. Phys Ther, 77, 812-819.

Shumway-Cook, A., Patla, A.A.E., Stewart, A., Ferrucci, L., Ciol, M.A. and Guralnik, J.M. (2002). Environmental demands associated with community mobility in older adults with and without mobility disabilities. Phys Ther, 82, 670-681.

Skilbeck, C.E., Wade, D.T., Hewer, R.L. and Wood, V.A. (1983). Recovery after stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr, 46, 5-8.

Stevenson, T. (2001). Detecting change in patients with stroke using the Berg balance scale. Aust JPhysiother, 7, 29-38.

Stratford, P. (2004). Getting more from the literature: estimating the standard error of measurement from reliability studies. Physiother Can, 56, 27-30.

Stratford, P.W., Binkley, J.M. and Riddle, D.L. (1996). Health status measures: strategies and analytic methods for assessing change scores. Phys Ther, 76, 1109-1123.

Streiner, D.L. and Norman, G.R. (2003). Health Measurement Scales: A Practical Guide to Their Development and Use, 3rd edn., Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Suzuki, K., Nakamura, R., Yamada, Y. and Handa, T. (1990). Determinants of maximum walking speed in hemiparetic stroke patients. Tohoku J Exp Med, 162, 337-344.

Tangeman, P., Banaitis, D. and Williams, A. (1990). Rehabilitation for chronic stroke patients: changes in functional performance. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 71, 876-880.

Teixeira-Salmela, L.F., Olney, S.J., Nadeau, S. and Brouwer, B. (1999). Muscle strengthening and physical conditioning to reduce impairment and disability in chronic stroke survivors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 10, 1211-1218.

Teixeira-Salmela, L.F., Nadeau, S., McBride, I. and Olney, S.J. (2001). Effects of muscle strengthening and physical conditioning training on temporal, kinematic and kinetic variables during gait in chronic stroke survivors. J Rehabil Med, 33, 53-60.

Terwee, C.B., Dekker, F.W., Wiersinga, W.M., Prummel, M.F. and Bossuyt, P.M.M. (2003). On assessing responsiveness of health related quality of life instruments: guidelines for instrument evaluation. Qual Life Res, 12, 349-362.

Traversa, R., Cicinelli, P., Bassi, A., Rossinin, P.M. and Bernardi, G.

(1997). Mapping of motor cortical reorganization after stroke: a brain stimulation study with focal magnetic pulses. Stroke, 28, 110-117.

Tuley, M.R., Mulrow, C. and McMahan, A. (1991). Estimating and testing an index of responsiveness and the relationship of the index to power. J Clin Epidemiol, 44, 417-421.

Visintin, M., Barbeau, H., Korner-Bitensky, N. and Mayo, N.E.

(1998). A new approach to retrain gait in stroke patients through body weight support and treadmill stimulation. Stroke, 29, 1122-1128.

Wade, D.T. (1992). Measurement in Neurological Rehabilitation., Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wade, D.T., Wood, V.A., Heller, A., Maggs, J. and Langton, H.R. (1987). Walking after stroke: measurement and recovery over the first 3 months. Scand J Rehabil Med, 19, 25-30.

Ware, J.E. and Keller, S.D. (1996). Interpreting general health measures. In: Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in

Clinical Trials (ed. Spilker, B.), Lip pencott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 445-460.

Whitney, S.L., Hudak, M.T. and Marchetti, G.F. (2000). The dynamic gait index relates to self-reported fall history in individuals with vestibular dysfunction. J Vestib Res, 10, 99-105.

Winter, D.A. (1991). The Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Gait: Normal, Elderly and Pathological, 2nd edn., University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, ON.

Wood-Dauphinee, S., Williams, J.I., Opzoomer, A., Marchand, B. and Spitzer, W.O. (1988). Assessment of global function: the reintegration to normal living index. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 69, 583-590.

Wood-Dauphinee, S., Berg, K. and Daley, K. (1994). Monitoring status and evaluating outcomes: an overview of rating scales for use with patients who have sustained a stroke. Top Geriat Rehabil, 10, 22-41.

Wood-Dauphinee, S., Berg, K., Bravo, G. and Williams, J.I. (1997). The balance scale: responsiveness to clinically meaningful changes. Can J Rehabil, 10, 35-50.

World Health Organization (2001). International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health., World Health Organization, Geneva.

Wrisley, D.M., Walker, M., Echternach, J.L. and Strasnick, B. (2003). Reliability of the dynamic gait index in people with vestibular disorders. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 84, 1528-1533.

Wyrwich, K.W., Tierney, W.M. and Wolinsky, F.D. (2002). Using the standard error of measurement to identify important changes in the asthma quality of life questionnaire. Qual Life Res, 11 , 1-7.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
The Donts of Treadmill Buying

The Donts of Treadmill Buying

Though competitive runners are advised to run on the road, there are several reasons why you should buy treadmills anyway. You might have a family which means that your schedule does not have the flexibility it once had.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment