References

Dorn Spinal Therapy

Spine Healing Therapy

Get Instant Access

Albright, A.L., Barron, W.B., Fasick, M.P., Polinko, P. and Janosky, J. (1993). Continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion for spasticity of cerebral origin. J Am Med Assoc, 270, 2475-2477.

Alfieri, V. (1982). Electrical treatment of spasticity. Scand J Rehabil Med, 14, 177-182.

Allison, S.C. and Abraham, L.D. (1995). Correlation of quantitative measures with the modified Ashworth scale in the assessment of plantar flexor spasticity in the patients with traumatic brain injury. J Neurol, 242, 699-706.

Armutulu, K., Meric, A., Kiodi, N., Yakut, E. and Karabudak, R. (2003). The effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Neurorehabit Neural Repair, 17, 79-82.

Ashworth, B. (1964). Preliminary trial of carisoprodol in multiple sclerosis. Practitioner, 192, 540-542.

Awad, E.A. and Dykstra, D. (1990). Treatment of spasticity by neurolysis. In: Krusen's Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (eds Kottke, F.J. and Leahmann, J.F.), 4th edn., Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 1154-1161.

Backheit, A.M., Pittock, S., Moore, A.P., Wurker, M., Otto, S., Erbguth, F. and Coxon, L. (2001). A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A in upper limb spasticity in patients with stroke. Eur J Neurol, 8, 559-565.

Bakheit, A.M. (2003). Botulinum toxin in the management of childhood muscle spasticity: comparison of clinical practice of 17 treatment centers. Eur J Neurol, 10, 415-419.

Barbeau, H., Richards, C.L. and Bedard, P.J. (1982). Action of cyproheptadine in spastic paraparetic patients. J Neurol NeurosurgPsychiatr, 45, 923-926.

Bohannon, R. (1999). Usefulness of the pendulum test. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 13, 259-260.

Bohannon, R.W. (1986). Variability and reliability of the pendulum test for spasticity using a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer. Phys Ther, 67, 659-661.

Bohannon, R.W. and Smith, M.B. (1987). Interrater reliability of a modified Ashworth scale of muscle spasticity. Phys Ther, 67, 206-207.

Botte, M.J., Abrams, R.A. and Bodine-Fowler, S.C. (1995). Treatment of acquired muscle spasticity using phenol peripheral nerve blocks. Orthopedics, 18, 151-159.

Bottos, M., Benedetti, M., Salucci, P., Gasparroni, V and Giannini, S. (2003). Botulinum toxin with and without casting in ambulant children with spastic diplegia: a clinical and functional assessment. Dev Med Child Neurol, 45, 758-762.

Brashear, A., Lew, M.F., Dykstra, D.D., Comella, C.L., Factor, S.A. and Rodnitzky, R.L. (1999). Safety and efficacy of NeuroBloc

(botulinum toxin type B) in type A-responsive cervical dystonia. Neurology, 53, 1439-1446.

Brashear, A., Zalonte, R., Coccoran, M., Galvez-Jimenez, N., Gracies, J.M., Gordon, M.F., McAfee, A., Ruffing, K., Thompson, B., Williams, M., Lee, C.H. and Turkel, C. (2002). Inter- and intrarater reliability of the Ashworth scale and the disability assessment scale in patients with upper-limb post stroke spasticity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 83, 1349-1354.

Brashear, A., McAfee, A.L., Kuhn, E.R. and Ambrosius, W.T. (2003). Treatment with botulinum toxin type B for upper limb spasticity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 84, 103-107.

Brin, M.F. (1997). Botulinum toxin: chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, and immunology. Muscle Nerve, 20(Suppl. 6), S146-S168.

Brin, M.F., Lew, M.F. and Adler, C.H. (1999). Safety and efficacy of NeuroBloc (botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia. Neurology, 53, 1431-1438.

Calancie, B., Molano, M.R. and Broton, J.G. (2002). Interlimb reflexes and synaptic plasticity become evident months after human spinal cord injury. Brain, 125, 1150-1161.

Coffey, R.J., Cahill, D., Steers, W. and Park, T.S. (1993). Intra-thecal baclofen for intractable spasticity of spinal origin: results of long-term multicenter study. J Neurosurg, 78, 226-232.

Cohen, A.R. and Webster, H.C. (1991). How selective is selective posterior rhizotomy? Surg Neurol, 35, 267-272.

Conine, TA., Sullivan, T., Mackie, T. and Goodman, M. (1990). Effect of serial casting for the prevention of equinus in patients with acute head injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 71, 310-312.

Cosgrove, A.P., Corry, I.S. and Graham, H.K. (1994). Botulinum toxin in the management of lower limb spasticity in cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol, 36, 386-396.

Dahlin, M., Knutsson, E. and Nergardh, A. (1993). Treatment of spasticity in children with low dose benzodiazepine. J Neurol Sci, 117, 54-60.

Dali, C., Hansen, F.J., Pedersen, S.A., Skov, L., Hilden, J., Bjornskov, I., Strandberg, C., Jeite, C., Ulla, H., Herbst, G. and Ulla, L. (2002). Threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in ambulent children with CP: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Dev Med Child Neurol, 44, 364-369.

Davidoff, R.A. (1985). Antispasticity drugs: mechanisms of action. Ann Neurol, 17, 107-116.

Dimitrijevic, M.R. (1995). Evaluation and treatment of spasticity. J Neurol Rehabil, 9, 97-110.

Dunne, J.W., Heye, N. and Dunne, S.L. (1995). Treatment of chronic limb spasticity with botulinum toxin A. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych, 58, 232-235.

Fasano, VA., Barolat-Romana, G., Zeme, S. and Sguazzi, A. (1979). Electrophysiological assessment of spinal circuits in spasticity by direct dorsal root stimulation. Neurosurgery, 4, 146-151.

Felsenthal, G. (1974). Pharmacology of phenol in peripheral nerve blocks: a review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 55, 13-16.

Finke, J. (1978). Therapy of spasticity using sodium valproate. J Medizinischewelt, 29, 1579-1581.

Francisco, G.E. and Boake, C. (2003). Improvement in walking speed in poststroke spastic hemiplegia after intrathecal baclofen in therapy: a preliminary study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 84, 1194-1199.

Friden, J. and Lieber, R.L. (2003). Spastic muscle cells are shorter and stiffer than normal cells. Muscle Nerve, 27, 157-164.

Fromm, G.H. (1994). Baclofen as an adjuvant analgesic. J Pain Symptom Manag, 9, 500-509.

Gelber, D.A. and Jozefczyk, P.B. (1999). Therapeutics in the management of spasticity. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 13, 5-14.

Gelber, D.A., Jozefczyk, P.B., Herrmann, D., Good, D.C. and Verhulst, S.J. (1995). Comparison of two therapy approaches in the rehabilitation of the pure motor hemiparetic stroke patient. J Neurol Rehabil, 9, 191-196.

Gelber, D.A., Good, D.C., Dromerick, A., Sergay, S. and Richardson, M. (2001). Open-label dose-titration safety and efficacy study of tizanidine hydrochloride in the treatment of spasticity associated with chronic stroke. Stroke, 32, 1841-1846.

Gooch, J.L. and Sandell, T.V (1996). Botulinum toxin for spastic-ity and athetosis in children with cerebral palsy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 77, 598-611.

Gracies, J.M., Elovic, E., McGuire, J. and Simpson, D. (1997). Traditional pharmacological treatments for spasticity part I: local treatments. Muscle Nerve, 20(Suppl. 6), S61-S91.

Grazko, M.A., Polo, J.B. and Jabbari, B. (1995). Botulinum toxin A for spasticity, muscle spasms, and rigidity. Neurology,45, 712-717.

Hansel, D.E., Hansel, C.R., Shindle, M.K., Reinhardt, E.M., Madden, L., Levey, E.B., Johnston, M.V. and Hoon, A.H. (2003). Oral baclofen in cerebral palsy: possible seizure potentiation. Pediatr Neurol, 29, 203-206.

Hesse, S., Lucke, D., Malezic, M., Bertelt, C., Friedrich, H., Gregoric, M. and Mauritz, K.H. (1994). Botulinum toxin treatment for lower limb extensor spasticity in chronic hemiparetic patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych, 57, 1321-1324.

Hiersemenzel, L.P., Curt, A. and Dietz, V. (2000). From spinal shock to spasticity: neuronal adaptations to a spinal cord injury. Neurology, 54, 1574-1582.

Jamshidi, M. and Smith, A.W. (1996). Clinical measurement of spasticity using the pendulum test: comparison of electro-goniometric and videotape analyses. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 77, 1129-1132.

Jankovic, J. and Brin, M.F. (1991). The therapeutic uses of botulinum toxins. New Engl J Med, 324, 1186-1194.

Kabat, H. and Knott, M. (1954). Proprioceptive facilitation therapy for paralysis. Physiotherapy, 40, 171.

Kagaya, H., Yamada, S., Nagasawa, T., Ishihara, Y., Kodama, H. and Endoh, H. (1996). Split posterior tibial tendon transfer for varus deformity of hindfoot. Clin Ortho RelRes, 323, 254-260.

Kao, L.W., Amin, Y., Kirk, M.A. and Turner, M.S. (2003). Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal mimicking sepsis. J Emerg Med, 24, 423-427.

Katz, R. and Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. (1982). Recurrent inhibition of alpha-motorneurones in patients with upper motorneurone lesions. Brain, 105, 103-124.

Keenan, MA, Tomas, E.S., Stone, L. and Gersten, L.M. (1990). Percutaneous phenol block of the musculocutaneous nerve to control elbow flexor spasticity. J Hand Surg, 15A, 340-346.

Khalil, A.A. and Betts, H.B. (1967). Peripheral nerve block with phenol in the management of spasticity. J Am Med Assoc, 200, 1155-1157.

Killestein, J., Hoogervorst, E.L.J., Kalkers, N.F., vanLoenen, A.C., Staats, P.G.M., Gorter, R.W., Uitdehaag, B.M.J. and Poiman, C.H. (2002). Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabanoids in MS. Neurology, 58, 1404-1407.

Kim, D.S., Choi, J.U., Yang, K.H., Park, C.I. and Park, E.S. (2003). Selective posterior rhizotomy for lower extremity spasticity: how much and which of the posterior rootlets should be cut? Surg Neurol, 57, 87-93.

Kogler, G.F. (2002). Orthotic management. In: Clinical Evaluation and Management of Spasticity (eds. Gelber, D.A. and Jeffery, D.R.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 67-91.

Kroin, J.S., Bianchi, G.D. and Penn, R.D. (1993). Intrathecal baclofen down regulates GABAB receptors in the rat sub-stantia gelatinosa. JNeurosurg, 79, 544-549.

Laitinen, L. and Singounas, E. (1971). Longitudinal myelotomy in the treatment of spasticity of the legs. J Neurosurg, 35, 536-540.

Langlois, S., MacKinnon, J.R. and Pederson, L. (1989). Hand splints and cerebral spasticity: a review of the literature. Canad JOccup Ther, 56, 113-119.

Lazorthes, Y., Sallerin-Caute, B., Verdie, J., Bastide, R. and Carillo, J. (1990). Chronic intrathecal baclofen administration for con-trolof severe spasticity. J Neurosurg, 72, 393-402.

Lee, S.U., Bang, M.S. and Han, T.R. (2002). Effect of cold air therapy in relieving spasticity: applied to spinalized rabbits. Spinal Cord, 40, 67-73.

Lehmann, J.F., Condon, S.M., Price, R. and deLateur, B.J. (1987). Gait abnormalities in hemiplegia: their correction by ankle-foot orthoses. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 68, 763-771.

Leslie, G.C., et al. (1992). A comparison of the assessment of spasticity by the Wartenberg pendulum test and the Ashworth grading scale in patients with multiple sclerosis. Clin Rehabil, 6, 41-48.

Lew, M.F., Adornato, B.T., Duane, D.D., et al. (1997). Botulinum toxin type B: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety and efficacy study in cervical dystonia. Neurology, 49, 701-707.

Livshits, A., Rappaport, Z.H., Livshits, V and Gepstein, R. (2002). Surgical treatment of painful spasticity after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 40, 167-173.

Loubser, P.G., Narayan, R.K., Sandin, K.J., Donovan, W.H. and Russell, K.D. (1991). Continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen: long-term effects on spasticity in spinal cord injury. Paraplegia, 29, 48-52.

McGuire, J.R. and Harvey, R.L. (1999). The prevention and management of complications after stroke. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am, 10, 857-874.

Merritt, J.L. (1981). Management of spasticity in spinal cord injury. Mayo Clin Proc, 156, 614-622.

Meythaler, J.M., Steers, W.D., Tuel, S.M., Cross, L.L. and Haworth, C.S. (1992). Continuous intrathecal baclofen in spinal cord spasticity. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 71, 321-327.

Meythaler, J.M., DeVivo, M.J. and Hadley, M. (1996). Prospective study on the use of bolus intrathecal baclofen for spastic hypertonia due to acquired brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 77, 461-466.

Miglietta, O. (1973). Action of cold on spasticity. Am J Physical Med, 52, 198-205.

Mittal, S., Farmer, J.P., Al-Atassi, B., Montpetit, K., Gervais, N., Poulin, C., Cantin, M.A. and Benaroch, T.E. (2002). Impact of selective posterior rhizotomy in fine motor skills: long-term results using a validated evaluative measure. Pediatr Neurosurg, 36, 133-141.

Moon, S.K., Whang, Y.K., Park, S.U., Ko, C.N., Kim, Y.S., Bae, H.S. and Cho, K.H. (2003). Antispastic effect of electroacupunc-ture and moxibustion in stroke patients. Am J Clin Med, 31, 467-474.

Moroto, N., Kameyama, S., Masuda, M., Uishi, M., Aguni, A., Yehara, T. and Dagamine, K. (2003). Functional posterior rhizotomy for severely disabled children with mixed type cerebral palsy. Acta Neurochir (Suppl. 87), S99-S102.

Mortenson, P.A. and Eng, J.J. (2003). The use of casts in the management of mobility and joint hypertonia following brain injury in adults: a systemic review. Phys Therapy, 83, 648-658.

Murphy, N.A., Irwin, M.C. and Hoff, C. (2002). Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with cerebral palsy: efficacy and complications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 83, 1721-1725.

Nance, P.W., Bugaresti, J., Shellenberger, K., Sheramata, W., Martinez-Arizala, A. and the North American Tizanidine Study Group. (1994). Efficacy and safety of tizanidine in the treatment of spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Neurology, 44(Suppl. 9), S44-S52.

Nielsten, J.F. (1995). A new treatment of spasticity with repetitive magnetic stimulation in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol NeurosurgPsych, 58, 254-255.

Nishida, T., Thatcher, S.W. and Marty, G.R. (1995) .Selective posterior rhizotomy for children with cerebral palsy: a 7-year experience. Child Nerv Sys, 11, 374-380.

Nuyens, G.E., DeWeerdt, W.J., Spaepen, A.J., Kiekens, C. and Feys, H.M. (2002). Reduction of spastic hypertonia during repeated passive knee movements in stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 83, 930-935.

O'Brien, C.F. (1997). Injection techniques for botulinum toxin using electromyography and electrical stimulation. Muscle Nerve, 20(Suppl. 6), S176-S180.

O'Brien, C.F., Seeberger, L.C. and Smith, D.B. (1996). Spasticity after stroke, epidemiology and optimal treatment. Drugs Aging, 9, 332-340.

Ochs, G., Struppler, A., Meyerson, B.A., Linderoth, B. and Gybels, J. (1989). Intrathecal baclofen for long-term treatment of spasticity: a multicentre study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr, 52, 933-939.

Peacock, W.J., Arens, L.J. and Berman, B. (1987). Cerebral palsy spasticity. Selective posterior rhizotomy. Pediatr Neurosci, 13, 61-66.

Peerless, J.R., Davies, A., Klein, D. and Yu, D. (1999). Skin complications in the intensive care unit. Clin Chest Med, 20, 453-467.

Penn, R.D., Savoy, S.M., Corcos, D., Latash, M., Gottlieb, G., Parke, B. and Kroin, J.S. (1989). Intrathecal baclofen for severe spinal spasticity. New Engl J Med, 320, 517-521.

Peter, J.C. and Arens, L.J. (1993). Selective posterior lum-bosacral rhizotomy for the management of cerebral palsy spasticity. S Afr Med J, 83, 745-747.

Pierson, S.H. (2002). Physical and occupational therapy approaches. In: Clinical Evaluation and Management of Spasticity (eds Gelber, D.A. and Jeffery, D.R.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 47-66.

Pinder, R.M., Brogden, R.N., Speight, T.M. and Avery, G.S. (1997). Dantrolene sodium: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in spasticity. Drugs, 13, 3-23.

Pohl, M., Ruckreim, S., Mehrholz, J., Ritschel, C., Strik, H. and Pause, M.R. (2002). Effectiveness of serial casting in patients with severe cerebral spasticity: a comparison study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 83, 784-790.

Pohl, M., Rockstroh, G., Ruckriem, S., Mehrholz, J., Pause, M., Kock, R. and Strik, H. (2003). Peak time course of the effect of a bolus dose of intrathecal baclofen on severe cerebral spasticity. J Neurol, 250, 1195-2000.

Prandyan, A.D., Price, C.I., Barme, M.D. and Johnson, G.R. (2003). A biomechanical investigation into the validity of the modified Ashworth scale as a measure of elbow spastic-ity. Clin Rehabil, 17, 290-293.

Priebe, M.M., Sherwood, A.M., Graves, D.E., Mueller, M. and Olson, W.H. (1997). Effectiveness of gabapentin in controlling spasticity: a quantitative study. Spinal Cord, 35, 171-175.

Pullman, S.L., Greene, P., Fahn, S. and Pedersen, S.F. (1996). Approach to the treatment of limb disorders with botu-linum toxin A. Arch Neurol, 53, 617-624.

Rifici, C., Kofler, M., Kronenberg, M., Kofler, A., Bramanti, P. and Saltuari, L. (1994). Intrathecal baclofen application in patients with supraspinal spasticity secondary to severe traumatic brain injury. Funct Neurol, 9, 29-34.

Riley, P.O. and Kerrigan, D.C. (1999). Kinetics of stiff-legged gait: induced acceleration analysis. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng, 7, 420-426.

Rossi, P.W. (1994). Treatment of spasticity. In: The Handbook of Neurorehabilitation (eds. Good, D.C. and Couch, J.R.), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 197-218.

Roussan, M., Terrence, C. and Fromm, G. (1985). Baclofen versus diazepam for the treatment of spasticity and long-term follow-up of baclofen therapy. Pharmatherapeutics, 4, 278-284.

Russo, E.B., Killestein, J., Uitdehaag, B.M.J. and Pohlman, C.H. (2003). Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabanoids in MS. Neurology, 66, 729-730.

Sabbahi, M.A., DeLuca, C.J. and Powers, W.R. (1981). Topical anesthesia: a possible treatment for spasticity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 62, 310-314.

Sakellarides, H.T. and Kirvin, F.M. (1995). Management of the unbalanced wrist in cerebral palsy by tendon transfer. Ann Plast Surg, 35, 90-94.

Sakellarides, H.T., Mital, M.A., Matza, R.A. and Dimakopoulos, P. (1995). Classification and surgical treatment of thumb-in palm deformity in cerebral palsy and spastic paralysis. J Hand Surg, 20, 428-431.

Salame, K., Ouaknine, G.E., Rochkind, S., Constantin, S. and Razon, N. (2003). Surgical treatment of spasticity by selective posterior rhizotomy: 30 years experience. Isr Med Assoc J, 5, 546-549.

Sanger, J.D., Delgado, M.R., Gaebler-Spira, D., Hallett, M. and Mink, J.W. (2003). Clinical practice guideline: classification and definition of disorders causing hypertonia in childhood. Pediatrics, 111, 98-97.

Sankey, R.J., Anderson, D.M. and Young, J.A. (1989). Characteristics of ankle-foot orthoses for management of the spastic lower limb. Dev Med Child Neurol, 31, 466-470.

Sarioglu, B., Serdaroglu, G., Tutuneuogle, S. and Ozer, E. (2003). The use of botulinum toxin type A treatment in children with spasticity. Pediatr Neurol, 29, 299-301.

Scheker, L.R. and Ozer, K. (2003). Electrical stimulation in the management of spastic deformity. Hand Clinics, 19, 601-606.

Schiavo, G., Benfenati, F. and Poulain, B. (1992). Tetanus and bot-ulinum-B neurotoxins block neurotransmitter release by a proteolytic cleavage of synaptobrevin. Nature, 359, 832-835.

Schulte-Baukloh, H., Michael, T., Sturzebeeher, B. and Knispel, H. (2003). Botulinum-a toxin detrusor injection as a novel approach in the treatment of bladder spasticity in children with neurogenic bladder. Eurol Urol, 44, 139-143.

Simpson, D.M. (1997). Clinical trials of botulinum toxin in the treatment of spasticity. Muscle Nerve, 20(Suppl.6), S169-S175.

Simpson, D.M., Alexander, D.N., O'Brien, C.F., Tagliati, M., Aswad, A.S., Leon, J.M., Gibson, J., et al. (1996). Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of upper extremity spasticity: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Neurology, 46, 1306-1310.

Slawek, J. and Klimont, L. (2003). Functional improvement in cerebral palsy patients treated with botulinum toxin A injections - preliminary results. Eur J Neurol, 10, 313-317.

Snook, J.H. (1979). Spasticity reduction splint. Am J Occup Ther, 33, 648-651.

Snow, B.J., Tsui, J.K., Bhatt, B.H., Varelas, M., Hashimoto, S.A. and Calne, D.B. (1990). Treatment of spasticity with botulinum toxin: a double blind study. Ann Neurol, 28, 512-515.

Soni, B.M., Mani, R.M., Oo, T. and Vaidyanatharis, S. (2003). Treatment of spasticity in a spinal-cord-injured patient with intrathecal morphine due to intrathecal baclofen tolerance - a case report and review of the literature. Spinal Cord, 41, 58-69.

Steinbok, P., Keyes, R., Langill, L. and Cochrane, D.D. (1994). The validity of electrophysiological criteria used in selective functional posterior rhizotomy for treatment of spastic cerebral palsy. J Neurosurg, 81, 354-361.

Wagstaff, A.J. and Bryson, H.M. (1997). Tizanidine: a review of its pharmacology, clinical efficacy and tolerability in the management of spasticity associated with cerebral and spinal disorders. Drugs, 53, 435-452.

Wallace, J.D. (1994). Summary of combined clinical analysis of controlled clinical trials with tizanidine. Neurology, 44(Suppl. 9), S60-S69.

Walther, E.U. and Hohlfield, R. (1999). Multiple sclerosis: side effects of interferon beta therapy and their management. Neurology, 53, 1622.

Waters, R.L., Frazier, J., Garland, D.E., Jordon, C. and Perry, J. (1982). Electromyographic gait analysis before and after operative treatment for hemiplegic equinus and equino-varus deformity. J Bone Joint Surg, 64A, 284-288.

Weingarden, S.I. and Belen, J.G. (1992). Clonidine transdermal system for treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 73, 876-877.

White, K.D., Ince, P.G., Lusher, M., Lindsey, J., Cookson, M., Bashir, R., Shaw, P.J. and Bughby, K.M.D. (2000). Clinical and pathological findings in hereditary spastic paraparesis with spastin mutation. Neurology, 55, 89-94.

Woldag, H. and Hummelsheim, H. (2003). Is the reduction of spasticity by botulinum toxin A beneficial for the recovery of motor function of arm and hand in stroke patients. Eur Neurol, 50, 165-171.

Wong, V (2003). Evidence-based approach to the use of botulinum toxin type A (BTX) in cerebral pasy. Pediatr Rehabil, 6, 85-96.

Young, R.R. (1987). Physiologic and pharmacological approaches to spasticity. Neurologic Clinics, 5, 529-539.

Young, R.R. (2002). Physiology and pharmacology of spasticity. In: Clinical Evaluation and Management of Spasticity (eds Gelber, DA. and Jeffery, D.R.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 3-12.

Young, R.R. and Delwaide, P.J. (1981). Drug therapy: spasticity. New Engl J Med, 304, 28-33.

Zajicek, J., Fox, P., Santos, H., Wright, D., Vickery, J., Nunn, A., Thompson, A. and UK MS Research Group. (2003). Canna-banoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS Study): multicen-tre randomised placebo controlled trial. Lancet, 362, 1517-1526.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment