Figure 24.1. The efferent pathways of the ANS. The solid lines indicate parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways and the interrupted lines indicate postganglionic rami to the cranial and spinal nerves (after Meyer and Gottlieb).

Lacrimal gland Mucous membrane Submandibular of nose and palate

Submandibular gland Sublingual gland Oral mucosa

Parotid gland Heart


Trachea Bronchi

Oesophagus Stomach

Abdominal vessels Liver and ducts Pancreas Suprarenal gland

Small intestine Large intestine

Rectum Kidney

Bladder Sexual organs External genitalia

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