White Blood Cells

Several methods are available for labeling WBC. Their underlying principles are, however, similar and include isolation of WBC, prevention of cell activation and or damage, and choice of ligand (Peters et al. 1986). Diverse factors influence the LE of WBC (Table 8.5). Apart from maintenance in plasma (a major factor in the promotion of granulocyte activation is their isolation from plasma), no further additives have been used (Peters et al. 1986) to inhibit granulocytes activation during their...

Sterility Testing of Radiopharmaceuticals

It is an integral feature of good manufacturing practice that radiopharmaceuticals for injection that are required to be sterile are prepared under conditions that exclude microbial contamination of the product. There is a higher degree of assurance of sterility of products that are terminally sterilized in their final container than for those that are prepared by aseptic technique. The majority of radiopharmaceuticals in current clinical practice fall into the latter category, and a sterility...

Preparation and Quality Control in Nuclear Medicine

Department of Medicinal Pharmaceutical Chemistry Library of Congress Control Number 2006925440 ISBN-10 3-540-33989-2 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York ISBN-13 978-3-540-33989-2 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data...

Clinical Applications

99mTc(V)-tetrofosmin is used for myocardial perfusion studies in patients with coronary artery disease Diagnosis of ischemic heart disease Diagnosis of reduced regional perfusion and localization of myocardial infarction Detection of perfusion defects in myocardium at rest 99mTc-tetrofosmin has been evaluated as a radiotracer for myocardial perfusion imaging (Higley et al. 1993 Jain et al. 1993). Stress-rest imaging was performed using 1-day and 2-day protocols (Sridhara et al. 1994). Planar...

Lll European Economic Council Directives and Regulations

The peaceful application of nuclear reactors after World War II initiated the production of large quantities of radionuclides, which were introduced to medicine for the investigation of human physiology and disease. The application of radioactive tracers for clinical diagnosis and therapy increased by the year, resulting in the widespread use of radioisotopes in clinical procedures. Radioactivity has been the concern of physicists, who set up rules and regulations for the protection of the...

Radiation Dose

The radiation exposure after the intravenous administration of 99mTc-pertechnetate depends on the thyroid status, and whether a blocking agent has been administered. The thyroid gland, stomach wall, small intestine, upper and lower intestinal wall, and urinary bladder wall are the most exposed organs. The effective (whole body) dose equivalent for pertechnetate 99mTc is 0.013 mSv MBq (International Commission on Radiological Protection 1987). The effective dose in adults (70 kg) resulting from...

H3bco2 Lewis

R 2-methoxyisobutyl Cationic tetrafluroroborate is labeled by reacting tetrafluroroborate adduct with mTc-pertechnetate, using the kit formulation. Heating the reaction vial in a boiling water bath further facilitates formation of 99mTc(I) sestamibi. Clinical studies showed high myocardial extraction of 99mTc sestamibi and fast background clearance (Wackers et al 1989). Redistribution of the lipophilic complex is blocked by intracellular binding. 99mTc chemistry is...