White Blood Cells

Several methods are available for labeling WBC. Their underlying principles are, however, similar and include isolation of WBC, prevention of cell activation and or damage, and choice of ligand (Peters et al. 1986). Diverse factors influence the LE of WBC (Table 8.5). Apart from maintenance in plasma (a major factor in the promotion of granulocyte activation is their isolation from plasma), no further additives have been used (Peters et al. 1986) to inhibit granulocytes activation during their...

Clinical Applications

99mTc(V)-tetrofosmin is used for myocardial perfusion studies in patients with coronary artery disease Diagnosis of ischemic heart disease Diagnosis of reduced regional perfusion and localization of myocardial infarction Detection of perfusion defects in myocardium at rest 99mTc-tetrofosmin has been evaluated as a radiotracer for myocardial perfusion imaging (Higley et al. 1993 Jain et al. 1993). Stress-rest imaging was performed using 1-day and 2-day protocols (Sridhara et al. 1994). Planar...

Additional Information

The patient should not eat 2-6 h prior to the hepatobiliary scintigraphy, because hepa-tocyte clearance of the radiotracer and parenchymal transit time is affected by the ingestion of food. The gallbladder cannot be visualized in 65 of cases within the first 60 min of injection of the 99mTc-IDA complex, even if the cystic duct is patent (Fink-Bennett 1995). Gallbladder contractility can be provoked with a fatty meal or intravenous cholecystokinin. Persistent nonvisualization of the gallbladder...

Lll European Economic Council Directives and Regulations

The peaceful application of nuclear reactors after World War II initiated the production of large quantities of radionuclides, which were introduced to medicine for the investigation of human physiology and disease. The application of radioactive tracers for clinical diagnosis and therapy increased by the year, resulting in the widespread use of radioisotopes in clinical procedures. Radioactivity has been the concern of physicists, who set up rules and regulations for the protection of the...

Radiation Dose

The radiation exposure after the intravenous administration of 99mTc-pertechnetate depends on the thyroid status, and whether a blocking agent has been administered. The thyroid gland, stomach wall, small intestine, upper and lower intestinal wall, and urinary bladder wall are the most exposed organs. The effective (whole body) dose equivalent for pertechnetate 99mTc is 0.013 mSv MBq (International Commission on Radiological Protection 1987). The effective dose in adults (70 kg) resulting from...

H3bco2 Lewis

R 2-methoxyisobutyl Cationic tetrafluroroborate is labeled by reacting tetrafluroroborate adduct with mTc-pertechnetate, using the kit formulation. Heating the reaction vial in a boiling water bath further facilitates formation of 99mTc(I) sestamibi. Clinical studies showed high myocardial extraction of 99mTc sestamibi and fast background clearance (Wackers et al 1989). Redistribution of the lipophilic complex is blocked by intracellular binding. 99mTc chemistry is...