Similarity Based Induction

Perhaps the most obvious and robust predictor of inductive strength is similarity. In the simplest case, most people are willing to project a property known to be true of (say) crocodiles to a very similar class, such as alligators, with some degree ofconfidence. Such willingness exists either because similarity is a mechanism of induction (Osherson et al., 1990) or because induction and similarity judgment have some common antecedent (Sloman, 1 993). From the scores of examples of the...

Social Personality and Social Cognitive Approaches

Developing in parallel with the cognitive approach, work in the social-personality approach has focused on personality variables, motivational variables, and the sociocul-tural environment as sources of creativity. Researchers such as Amabile (1983), Barron (1968, 1969), Eysenck (1993), Gough (1979), MacKinnon (1965), and others noted that certain personality traits often characterize creative people. Through correlational studies and research contrasting high and low creative samples (at both...

Levelts Model of Normal Speech Production

To provide an organizing framework for our consideration of models relevant to formal thought disorder, we turn first to a model of normal speech production. Levelt (Levelt, 1989, 1999 Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999) described such a model particularly useful here because of its comprehensive incorporation of diverse cognitive processes critical for effective interpersonal communication. As shown in Figure 21.1, Levelt's model involves a serial process by which a message intended for...

References

S., Atran, S., Medin, D., & Coley, J. D. (2002). A bird's eye view Biological categorization and reasoning within and across cultures. Cognition, 84, 1 -53. Berlin, B. (1992). Ethnobiological classification Principles of categorization of plants and animals in traditional societies. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press. Brown, R. (1958). How shall a thing be called Psychological Review, 65, 14-21. Carey, S. (1985). Conceptual change in childhood. Cambridge, MA...

Alternate Approaches to Understanding Kinds of Creative Contributions

Generally, we think of creative contributions as being of a single kind. However, a number of researchers on creativity have questioned this assumption. There are many ways of distinguishing among types of creative contributions. It is important to remember, though, that creative contributions can be viewed in different ways at different times. At a given time, the field can never be sure of whose work will withstand the judgments of the field over time (e.g., that of Mozart) and whose work...

Improving Intelligence

Although designers of artificial intelligence have made great strides in creating programs that simulate knowledge and skill acquisition, no existing program even approaches the ability of the human brain to enhance its own intelligence. Human intelligence is highly malleable and can be shaped and even increased through various kinds of interventions (Detterman & Sternberg, 1982 Grotzer & Perkins, 2000 Perkins & Grotzer, 1997 Sternberg et al., 1996 Sternberg et al., 1 997 see Ritchhart...

Working Memory

An interpretation that has generated considerable interest, particularly since a provocative article by Kyllonen and Christal (1 990) that reported a very strong relation between measures of working memory (WM) and measures of reasoning (see Morrison, Chap. 19), is that at least some of the age-related differences in reasoning might be attributable to age differences in WM. Because WM has been defined as the ability to preserve information while processing the same or other information, and...

Capsule History

Thinking and reasoning, long the academic province of philosophy, have over the past century emerged as core topics of empirical investigation and theoretical analysis in the modern fields known as cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience. Before psychology was founded, the eighteenth-century philosophers Immanuel Kant (in Germany) and David Hume (in Scotland) laid the foundations for all subsequent work on the origins of causal knowledge, perhaps the most central...

Accessibility and Substitution

The intent to judge a target attribute initiates a search for a reasonable value. Sometimes this search ends quickly because the required value can be read from a stored memory (e.g., the answer to the question How tall are you ) or a current experience (e.g., the answer to the question How much do you like this cake ). For other judgments, however, the target attribute does not readily come to mind, but the search for it evokes other attributes that are conceptually and associatively related....

Individual Differences in Working Memory

An alternative to Baddeley's dual-task methodology uses individual differences to study working memory. Daneman and Carpenter (1980) first used this approach to investigate how working memory was involved in language comprehension. They developed a reading span task that required subjects to read several sentences and then later recall the last word of each sentence in the correct order. The participant's span is typically defined as the maximum-sized trial with perfect performance. This...

Thinking and Reasoning

More information - www.cambridge.org 9780521824170 The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning is the first comprehensive and authoritative handbook covering all the core topics of the field of thinking and reasoning. Written by the foremost experts from cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience, individual chapters summarize basic concepts and findings for a major topic, sketch its history, and give a sense of the...

Domain Specificity

The notion of domain specificity has served to organize a great deal of research on conceptual development. For example, much of the work on essentialism has been conducted in the context of exploring children's naive biology (see also Au, 1994 Carey, 1995 Gopnik & Wellman, 1 994 Spelke, Phillips, & Woodward, 1995). Learning in a given domain may be guided by certain skeletal principles, constraints, and (possibly innate) assumptions about the world (see Gelman, 2003 Gelman & Coley,...

Creativity and Problem Solving

We began our exploration of implicit, unconscious process in human thought with the simpler functions of perception and memory. We'll end with a quick look at the more complex topics of problem solving and creativity (see Novick & Bassok, Chap. 14 Sternberg et al., Chap. 15). Although there hasn't been much recent study of unconscious influence on these functions, the notion that tacit knowledge affects the creative process was a central theme in the Gestalt approach (Kohler, 1925...

Multiple Memory Systems

Although the idea of separate primary memory is credited to William James (1890), Waugh and Norman (1965) and Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) developed the idea of distinct primary (i.e., short-term) and secondary (i.e., long-term) memory components into defined models of the human memory system. These multicompo-nent models of memory were supported by observations from many different studies during the 1950s and 1960s. Perhaps the most familiar justification for separate short-term and long-term...

Brief History of Motivated Thinking

Motivational perspectives on thought and reasoning originated most prominently with Freud's (1905) clinical theorizing on the psychodynamic conflicts created by unconscious drives and urges. These perspectives quickly spread to other areas of psychology. Early pioneers of experimental social psychology gave primary emphasis to motivational variables such as drives, goals, and aspirations (e.g., Allport, 1920 Lewin, 1935). The study of personality came to involve the identification and...

Cohens andBravers Model

Cohen, Braver, and colleagues (Braver, Barch, & Cohen, 1999 Braver et al., 2001 Cohen et al., 1999 Cohen & Servan-Schreiber, 1992) have proposed a model of schizophrenic information processing (see Figure 21.2 ) in which at least a subset of information processing deficits observed in schizophrenia patients results from a disturbance in the interaction between a cognitive module specialized for the representation, active maintenance, and updating of information regarding stimulus context...

Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies LISA

Similar to ACME, the LISA model (Hummel & Holyoak, 1997, 2003) is based on the principles of the multicon-straint theory of analogy unlike ACME, LISA operates within psychologically and neurally realistic constraints on working memory (see Doumas & Hummel, Chap. 4 Morrison, Chap. 19). The models discussed previously include at most localist representations of the meaning of concepts (e.g., a semantic network in the case of ARCS), and most of their processing is performed on propositional...

Attribute Substitution

The early research on judgment heuristics was guided by a simple and general hypothesis When confronted with a difficult question, people may answer an easier one instead and are often unaware of the substitution. A person who is asked What proportion of long-distance relation ships break up within a year may answer as if she had been asked Do instances of failed long-distance relationships come readily to mind This would be an application of the availability heuristic. A professor who has...

Relevance and Role of Neurophysiological Data

The reader will note that these theories of reasoning are strictly cognitive theories uninformed by knowledge ofthe brain. This is not an oversight. Until recently, the central domains of human reasoning and problem solving have been largely cognitive and computational enterprises, with little input from neuroscience. In fact, an argument advanced by cognitive scientists - based on the independence of computational processes and the mechanism in which they are realized (i.e., the brain) - has...

Do the Categories of Language Become the Categories of Thought

A seminal figure in reawakening interest in linguistic relativity was Roger Brown, the great social and developmental psychologist who framed much of the field of language acquisition in the modern era. Brown (1957) performed a simple and elegant experiment that demonstrated an effect of lexical categorization on the inferred meaning of a new word. Young children were shown a picture, for example, of hands that seemed to be kneading confettilike stuff in an overflowing bowl. Some children were...

Notes

The term working memory was originally used to describe rat behavior during radial arm maze learning see Olton (1979) for a description of this literature). It was also used by Newell and Simon (1972) to describe the component of their computational models that holds productions - that is, operations that the model must perform (see also Lovett and Anderson, Chap. 17). 2. Fuster (1997) has long argued for this approach to working memory based on electrophysiological and cortical cooling data...

Implicit Theories of Intelligence

What do people believe intelligence to be In 1921, when the editors of the Journal of Educational Psychology asked 14 famous psychologists that question, the responses varied but generally embraced two themes Intelligence involves the capacity to learn from experience and the ability to adapt to the surrounding environment. Sixty-five years later, Sternberg and Detterman (1986) asked twenty-four cognitive psychologists with expertise in intelligence research the same question. They, too,...

Hemsleys and Grays Model

A model with properties analogous to aspects of the model developed by Cohen and colleagues, but with important incongruities as well, has developed in a body of publications authored by Hemsley, Gray, and colleagues over the past two decades (Gray, 1982 Gray, 1995 Gray, 1998 Gray et al., 1991 Hemsley, 1987 Hemsley, 1993 Hemsley, 1994 Weiner, 1990). As summarized most recently by Gray (1998), this model of disordered information processing in schizophrenia involves a disruption in the processes...

Who and What Are the Individualists and Collectivists

This is perhaps the place to stop and define who are the individualists and who are the collectivists. In doing so, I will not present a simple picture. Instead, I will discuss ideal cases, in-between cases, culture change, biculturalism, and culture contact. These complexities take me beyond simple binary distinctions that have bothered some (Rogoff, 2003). My nonbinary starting point is that all human beings are both individual and social. What varies is the extent to which cultures try to...

Examples of Chapter Assignments for a Variety of Courses

This volume offers a comprehensive treatment of higher cognition. As such, it serves as an excellent source for courses on thinking and reasoning, both at the graduate level and for upper-level undergraduates. Although instructors for semester-length graduate courses in thinking and reasoning may opt to assign the entire volume as a textbook, there are a number of other possibilities (including using chapters from this volume as introductions for various topics and then supplementing with...

Skill Learning

Research into skill learning can be roughly divided into two categories. One category focuses on how skills are learned in the first place (e.g., Catrambone, 1996 Chi et al., 1989 VanLehn & Jones, 1993). The other focuses on how skills are refined to achieve domain expertise (see also Novick & Bassok, Chap. 14). Research in the former category has addressed issues of learning from instruction, transfer, and induction. Research in the latter category has addressed issues of generalization,...

Classification

Concepts and categories are reviewed by Medin and Rips (Chap. 3 ). Developmen-tally, categorization appears to progress from prototypes, arguably the most basic form of categorization, to more advanced categories, including those based on rules or theories. All advanced categories appear to have a label or symbol (e.g., dog for the dog category) so it will be convenient to deal with them under the heading of symbolic categories. There is evidence that infants can form pro-totypic categories...

Minihistory

Aasld Varices

Research on concepts in the middle of the last century reflected a gradual easing away from behaviorist and associative learning traditions. The focus, however, remained on learning. Most of this research was conducted in laboratories using artificial categories (a sample category might be any geometric figure that is both red and striped) and directed at one of two questions (1 ) Are concepts learned by gradual increases in associative strength, or is learning all or none (Levine, 1962...

Two Paradigms of Thought Phenomena Theory and Methodology

In 1963, Jerome Bruner gave me the chance of a lifetime - to go to Senegal to do my dissertation on relations between culture and the development of thought. While there I made an unexpected discovery one that led me into two radically different paradigms of cultural thought. I found that unschooled Wolof children, participating in a classic Pi-agetian conservation task, were unable to reply to the question, Why do you think (or say) this glass has more (or equal) water yet they quickly...

Influences of Directional Outcome Motivation

Overall, the kinds of phenomena that have been studied most extensively in research on motivated thinking involve directional outcome preferences (i.e., individuals' desires to reach specific conclusions about themselves and others for reviews, see Dunning, 1999 Kunda, 1 990 Murray, 1 999 Pyszczynski & Greenberg, 1987). Although a variety of outcomes have been investigated, people's well-documented preference for viewing themselves, and those close to them, in a generally positive manner...

Retrieval and Mapping

A paradigm for investigating analogical transfer Gick and Holyoak (1980, 1983) introduced a general laboratory paradigm for investigating analogical transfer in the context of problem solving. The general approach was first to provide people with a source analog in the guise of some incidental context, such as an experiment on story memory. Later, participants were asked to solve a problem that was in fact analogous to the story they had studied earlier. The questions of central interest were...

Steven A Sloman David A Lagnado

In its classic formulation, due to Hume (1739, 1748), inductive reasoning is an activity of the mind that takes us from the observed to the unobserved. From the fact that the sun has risen every day thus far, we conclude that it will rise again tomorrow from the fact that bread has nourished us in the past, we conclude that it will nourish us in the future. The essence of inductive reasoning lies in its ability to take us beyond the confines of our current evidence or knowledge to novel...

Visual Pattern Construction A Case of Historical Change

The worldwide direction of change on all critical demographic variables - toward greater population density, formal education, technology, and commerce-based wealth - yields an historical push toward the pole of individualism. I will use the domain of visual representation to provide an example of how historical change can move cognition in the direction of the individualistic paradigm of thought. One of the marks of a collectivistic cultural system is respect for elders and their traditions....

Induction as Scientific Methodology

Induction is of course not merely the province of individuals trying to accomplish everyday goals, but also one of the main activities of science. According to one common view of science (Carnap, 1966 Hempel, 1965 Nagel, 1961 for opposing views, see Hacking, 1983 Popper, 1963), scientists spend much of their time trying to induce general laws about categories from particular examples. It is natural, therefore, to look to the principles that govern induction in science to see how well they...

Differences Between Scientific Reasoning and Legal Reasoning

As Llewellyn said, legal reasoning is not scientific reasoning, although it shares some analytic strategies, most notably the method of comparison and difference (Llewellyn, 1930, p. 43) or, as we might say, convergent and discriminant validity (Campbell & Fiske, 1959) and the technique ofsimultane-ously considering alternative explanations or multiple working hypotheses (Chamber-lin, 1890 Campbell & Stanley, 1966). In fact, the legal decision maker in an adversarial system is forced to...

Larger Size

Cumulative growth in size is a basic dimension of change in a body of declarative knowledge. Adults obviously know more about the world in general than do children (Chi, 1976), and thus children are often referred to as universal novices (Brown & DeLoache, 1978). Similarly, experts obviously know more about their domains of expertise than novices (Chi, Glaser, & Farr, 1988). People routinely accumulate additional facts about the world from sources such as news programs, texts, pictures,...

Early Research on Medical Problem Solving and Reasoning

Medical cognition is a subfield of cognitive science devoted to the study of cognitive processes in medical tasks. Studies of medical cognition include analyses of performance in real world clinical tasks as well as in experimental tasks. Understanding the thought processes involved in clinical reasoning in order to promote more effective practices has been the subject of concern for nearly a century (Osler, 1906). Human information processing research typically has focused on the individual....

Approaches to Intelligence

Psychometric Approaches to Intelligence Psychologists interested in the structure of intelligence have relied on factor analysis as an indispensable tool for their research. Factor analysis is a statistical method for separating a construct - intelligence in this case -into a number of hypothetical factors or abilities the researchers believe to form the basis of individual differences in test performance. The specific factors derived, of course, still depend on the specific questions being...

The Challenge of Creating Cultures of Thinking

Thus far, we've examined four challenges that efforts to teach thinking traditionally have faced. As teachers and program developers seek to meet those challenges, a host of additional concerns arise for example How do we provide enough time, context, and diverse applications so that new patterns of thinking actually take hold How can we best take into account that school learning happens in a social context within a classroom among a group of individuals Is the development of individual...

Intelligence Testing History

Contemporary measurements of intelligence usually can be traced to one of two very different historical traditions. One tradition concentrated on lower level, psy-chophysical abilities (such as sensory acuity, physical strength, and motor coordination) the other focused on higher level, judgment abilities (which we traditionally describe as related to thinking). Francis Galton (1822-1911) believed that intelligence was a function ofpsychophysical abilities and, for several years, Galton...

Multicomponent Working Memory Model

Baddeley Model Working Memory

While exploring the issues described in the previous section, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model that expanded short-term memory into the modern concept of working memory - a term that has been used in several different contexts in psychology.1 Baddeley (1986) defined working memory as a system for the temporary holding and manipulation of information during the performance of a range of cognitive tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning (Ref. 3, p. 34). In a recent...

Brief History

Research on human problem solving has its origins in Gestalt psychology, an influential approach in European psychology during the first half of the twentieth century. (Behaviorism was the dominant perspective in American psychology at this time.) Karl Duncker published a book on the topic in his native German in 1935, which was subsequently translated into English and published 10 years later as the monograph On problem-solving (Duncker, 194 5). Max Wertheimer also published a book on the...

Introduction

How do people acquire a complex body of knowledge, such as the history of the Panama Canal, the structure of the solar system, or the explanation for how the human circulatory system works Complex learning takes longer than a few minutes and requires processes that are more complicated than the associative processes needed to memorize pairs of words. The materials that support complex learning -such as texts, illustrations, practice problems, and instructor feedback presented in classrooms and...

Embedded Processes Working Memory Model

Although Baddeley's multi-component working-memory model has dominated the field for much of the past thirty years, there are alternative conceptions of working memory. Cowan 1988, 1995 has proposed a model that tightly integrates short- and long-term memory systems with attention. In his Embedded-Processes working-memory model Figure 19.4 , Cowan defines working memory as the set of cognitive processes that keep mental representations in an easily accessible state. Within this system,...