Our understanding of thinking and reasoning would be gravely limited if we restricted investigation to young adult English speakers. The six chapters in Part VI deal with the multifaceted ways in which aspects of thinking vary across the human lifespan, across species, across speakers of different languages, and across cultures. In Chapter 22, Halford provides an overview of the development of thinking and reasoning over the course of childhood. In Chapter 23, Gallistel and Gelman discuss mathematical thinking, a special form of thinking found in rudimentary form in nonhuman animals that undergoes development in children. In Chapter 24, Salthouse describes the changes in thinking and reasoning brought on by the aging process. The phylogeny of thinking -thinking and reasoning as performed by apes and monkeys - is discussed in Chapter 25 by Call and Tomasello. One of the most controversial topics in the field is the relationship between thinking and the language spoken by the thinker; in Chapter 26, Gleitman and Papafragou review the hypotheses and evidence concerning the connections between language and thought. In Chapter 27, Greenfield considers the ways in which modes of thinking may vary in the context of different human cultures.
Was this article helpful?
When over eighty years of age, the poet Bryant said that he had added more than ten years to his life by taking a simple exercise while dressing in the morning. Those who knew Bryant and the facts of his life never doubted the truth of this statement.