S sclarea

Souleles and Argyriadou (1997) analyzed the essential oil of Salvia sclarea growing wild in Greece. The oil was obtained by steam distillation of the leaves and flowers (yield 2.5%). It has a characteristic odor and refractive index of n25D: 1.535. The preliminary GC analysis showed that the oil contained a large number of components; 72 of the constituents were identified. The identification of the individual GC peaks was made by comparing their retention times with those of the authentic samples and matching the mass spectral (MS) data with those held in a computer library. The oil contained mainly oxygenated monoterpenoids and monoterpenoid hydrocarbons, along with small amounts of oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons. The major constituents of the essential oil were linalool (17.2%), linalyl acetate (14.3%), geraniol (6.5%), geranyl acetate (7.5%), terpineol (15.1%), nerol (5.5%), neryl acetate (5.2%) and sclareol (5.2%). Other investigators have identified the presence of a- and ^-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, cis- and trans-ocimeme, p-cymene, terpinolene, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, caryophyllene, terpinen-4-ol, citronellol, ^-gurjunene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, (2R, 5E)-2, 12-epoxycaryophyll-5-ene, (2R, 5E)-caryophyl-S-en-12-al, (2S, 5E)- caryophyl-5-en-12-al, isospathulenol, (1R, 5R)-1, 5-epoxysalvial-4(14)-ene and salvial-4(14)-en-1-one (Maurer and Hauser 1983, Boelens and Boelens 1997).

The volatile fraction of the Greek S. sclarea differs from many Salvia species growing in the Mediterranean region, in regard to compounds, in the variety of its components and their relative quantity. While the oil of S. sclarea contains mainly monoterpenoid alcohols such as linalool, geraniol, terpineol, nerol, and linalyl acetate, geranyl acetate, neryl acetate, the essential oils from many Salvia species contain a- and ^-pinenes, camphor, phelladrene, cineol and bornyl acetate as major constituents. S. aucheri is very rich in camphor (Holeman et al., 1984), S. horminum in pinenes (Kokkalou et al., 1982), S. lavandulaefolia has a high content of 1, 8-cineol and camphor (Lawrence et al., 1970), while ^-thujone and 1, 8-cineol are the major constituents of the essential oil of S. officinalis (Pitarevic et al., 1984), and S. triloba (Harvala et al., 1987) (see also above).

Differences and similarities were observed between oils in the Greek and the Yugoslavian S. sclarea (Bankovic et al., 1993): a) both oils were characterized by large amounts of linallol and linalyl acetate, b) the oil of the Yugoslavian S. sclarea contained lower amount of geraniol (1.2%) from that of the Greek one (8.5%), c) the oil of the Greek S. sclarea had remarkably higher quanties of terpineol, manool, sclareol, nerol and neryl acetate which have not been detected in the oil Yugoslavian S. sclarea.

The volatile oil of flowering parts of S. sclarea collected from Spain contained linalool (32.97%), a-terpineol (5.63%), linalyl acetate (16.85%) and germacrene D (7.57%) as main components (Torres et al., 1997).

In Table 1 the chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia sclarea L., Salvia lavandulaefolia Vahl. and Salvia officinalis L. is presented, according to data obtained from all cited references.

Table 1 Chemical composition (%) of the essential oils of Salvia sclarea L., Salvia lavandulaefolia Vahl. and Salvia officinalis L. The presented variation in essential oil composition was calculated from data obtained from all cited references.

Compound

% in oil

% in oil

% in oil

S. sclarea

S. lavandulaefolia

S. officinalis

0.03-0.25

1.93-24.00

0.10-8.70

0.01-0.10

0.60-14.30

0.80-10.29

0.01-0.30

2.23-48.40

0.20-14.48

0.05-2.82

0.50-15.60

-

0.10-0.77

0.78-58.40

0.56-7.57

0.80-1.30

1.20-54.00

-

0.09-0.40

-

-

0.10-1.70

0.20-2.50

0.01-1.00

0.02-0.10

-

a-Pinene

Camphene

(3-Pinene

Mycrene

Limonene

1.8-Cineole

2-Hexenal

2-Methyl,2-vinyl,4-isoprenyl-tetrahydrofuran (E)-(3-Ocimene Terpinolene

Hexenyl Acetate Methyl Heptenone Hexanol

3-Hexenol Nonanal 2-Hexenol Perillene cis-Linalool Oxide (Furanoid) a-Ylangene + l-octen-3-ol Nerol Oxide trans-Linalool Oxide (Furanoid) a-Copaene

Formic Acid + Benzaldehyde p-Bourbonene

P-Cubebene

I.inalool

Linalyl Acetate

Bornyl Acetate

(3-Caryophyllene

Linaly Formate

Aromadedrene

Terpinen-4-ol

Methyl Carvacrol a-Humulene

Neral

Lavandulol + fJ-Farnesene

Muurolene a-Terpineol

Geranyl Formate

Geranial

Neryl Acetate

0.06-1.75 0.10-0.40 0.02-0.10 0.02-0.10 0.10 0.15 0.02-0.10 0.10 0.10 0.01-2.0 0.10 0.02-0.10 0.01-1.30 0.10-3.01 0.02-0.10 0.08-0.20 0.10-0.55 0.11-31.00 0.19-74.18 0.60

0.40-11.01

0.10

0.16-11.30

0.10

1.25

0.05

0.05

Table 1 Continued

Compound

S. lavandulaefolia

% in oil S. officinalis

43. 5-Cadinene 0.12-0.66

44. Geranyl Acetate 0.30-36.80

45. Dihydro 8-cumenol 0.02-0.10

46. Damascenone 0.10

48. 8-Cumenol 0.15

49. Geraniol 0.05-24.50

50. Caryophyllene Oxide 0.16-2.20

51. Hydroxy Citronellal 0.02-0.10

52. Hydroxy Linallol 1.20

53. Nerolidol 0.02-0.10

54. 10-epi-y-Eudesmol 0.02-0.10

55. Elemol 0.15

56. Eudesmol 0.02-0.10

57. Benzyl Tiglate 0.02-0.10

58. Dodecahydro-3a6,6, 0.10

9a-tetramethyl(2,TP)furan

59. Spathulenol 0.01-3.4

60. Valerianol 0.10

61. 8,3-epoxy-15,16-Dinozlab-12-ene 0.15

62. Carvacrol 0.02-0.10

63. a-Eudesmol 0.20-0.33

64. 0-Eudesmol 0.89-1.50

65. Thymol 0.02-0.10

66. Muurolol 0.02-0.10

67. Endo-8-hydroxy- 0.10 cycloisolongifolene

68. Manoyl Oxide I 0.10

69. Deutenyl Curcumene 1.25

70. 13-epi-Manoyl Oxide 0.15

71. Manool 2.50

72. Sclareol 0.10-5.20

75. Hexenal 0.03-0.07

77. Sabinene 0.01-0.06

78. ct-Terpinene 0.01-0.05

79. a-Phellandrene 0.05

80. |3-Phellandrene 0.07

81. Camphor 0.68-0.88

82. Humulene 1.30

84. Epoxy Linalyl Acetate 1 1.25

85. Epoxy Linalyl Acetate 2 1.12

0.40-44.00

0.02-16.40

Table 1 Continued

Compound

S. lavandulaefolia

% in oil S. officinalis

86. Caryophyllene 0.40-3.00

87. Germacrene D 0.36-48.39

88. Sclareol Oxide 0.07-0.53

90. a-Terpilyl Acetate 0.05-5.00 0.10-11.20

93. cis-Anhydrolinalool 0.01-0.02

94. trans-Anhydrolinalool 0.01-0.18

96. cis-ct-Bergamotene 0.30 0.10-0.80

97. Isoborneol 0.10 0.10-1.90

98. trans-Sabinenehydrate 0.20 0.10-1.70

99. trans-2,6-dimethyl-2, 0.48 7-octadien-2,6-diol

100. 3-acetoxy-2,6-dimethyl-3, 2.45 7-octadien-2-ol

101. 2,6-dimethyl-l,7-octadien-3, 0.10

6-diol

7-octadien-6-ol

103. a-Cubenene 0.12 0.05-1.10

104. 8-FJemene 0.39

105. p-Elemene 0.15

106. P-Selinene 0.83

107. Bicyclogermacrene 5.51 0.01-1.50

109. T-Cadinol 0.23

110. Torreyol 0.51

115. cis-Alloocimene - 0.01-0.50

116. a-p-Dimetbylstyrene - 0.30-0.40

117. a-Pinene Epoxides - 0.20-0.70

120. Isobornyl Acetate - 0.70-4.90

121. Sabinyl Acetate - 1.80-6.20

123. trans-a-Bergamotene - 0.10

124. allo-Aromedendrene - 0.05-0.40

0.10-10.00

0.10

0.60-15.50

3.40

3.39

Table 1 Continued

Compound

% in oil

% in oil

% in oil

S. sclarea

S. lavandulaefolia

S. officinalis

128. Carnone

-

0.30

-

129. a-Thujone

-

1.30-22.82

1.20-45.80

130. ß-Thujone

-

0.01^1.32

1.02-40.10

131. Terpineol

-

-

0.10-9.10

132. Geranyl Propionate

-

0.42

-

133. cis-Sabinyl Acetate

-

0.01-24.00

-

134. cis-a-Bisabolene

-

0.20

-

135. Isocaryophyllene

-

0.80

-

136. Curcumene

-

0.40

-

137. Humulene Oxide

-

0.20

0.48-0.80

138. cis-Sabinol

-

8.80-19.50

-

139. Caryophyllenol

-

0.10

-

140. 5-Cadinol

-

-

0.08-2.25

141. a-Cadinol

-

-

0.07-0.31

142. Fenchol

-

0.10-0.20

-

143. cis-Sabinenehydrate

-

0.20-0.40

0.10

144. 8-3-Carene

-

0.10

-

145. cis-Salvene

-

-

0.01-0.75

146. Myrcrene

-

-

0.07-3.08

147. para-Cymene

-

-

0.17-0.73

148. ß-Cubenene

-

-

0.23

149. trans-Salvene

-

-

0.01-0.12

150. trans-Sabinol

-

-

0.02-7.66

151. Farnesene

-

-

0.50-0.60

152. Carvone

-

-

0.60

153. Estragol

-

-

0.40

154. Fenchone

-

-

0.10-0.20

155. a-Maaliene

-

-

0.05-0.20

156. ß-Copaene

-

-

0.05-0.20

157. -y-Cadinene

-

-

0.10

158. Calamenene

-

-

0.10

159. Thujyl Acetate

-

-

0.07-0.19

-: compound never detected in this species.

-: compound never detected in this species.

SEASONAL VARIATION: EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION

In order to create an optimal system for growing volatile oil crops it is important to access the crop response to variation in environmental and cultivation management factors. Due to the pronounced xerophytic characteristics of the commercially culti vated sage species, it has been previously assumed that Salvia (along with other herbs originating in Mediterranean zones) would produce high-quality oils only under stressful conditions (high temperature, drought, low fertility) (Hay 1993). Lawrence

(1977) mentioned that Dalmatian sage grown under prairie conditions in Canada possessed a lower volatile oil content than Dalmatian sage, and the oil was of an inferior quality to normal Dalmatian sage oil. However, Salvia species display a marked plasticity which allows the adaptation of their phenologies to the growing season in a range of other environments. Furthermore, experiments under controlled conditions have demonstrated that variation in environmental factors such as temperature, irradiance and photoperiod can influence oil yield and quality.

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